The Short StoryAbout the short story
Dash Fiction 400.
PLUS: All first place winner will be selected for the Best Small Film Awards. TSS Publishing will ask all victors (1, 2, 3) about their fictions and their work. They have won the BathFlashFiction Award, the ReflexFictionPrize, were nominees for the Bridport Prize and nominees for the best small fictions in 2017 and 2018.
As part of the Ellipsis Zine editorship and for the Lighthouse Literary Journal. Dastur is author, publisher and founder of TSS Publishing. An associate editorship at The Word Factory, a premier anthology organization headquartered in London, he has assisted with several shorts hare and anthology work.
It is a fictive novel that is usually less than a novel and only occupies itself with a few figures. As a rule, the narration is about a singular effect that is communicated in only one or a few significant essays or szenes. Shape promotes the economics of the settings, the succinct narration and the absence of a complicated storyline; the personality is revealed in actions and dramatical encounters, but is rarely fully evolved.
However, despite its relatively small size, a shorter narrative is often assessed by its capacity to offer a "complete" or satisfactory handling of its subjects and personalities. Prior to the nineteenth centuary, the brief history was not considered a separate literature. However, although it seems to be a unique, contemporary style in this respect, the fact is that the brief essays are almost as old as the actual speech.
Over the course of time, mankind has relished various kinds of brief stories: jokes, stories of wit, study of digression, brief allegoric romance, moralising fairytales, brief myth and shortened historic legend. Neither is a narrative as it has been conceived since the nineteenth centuary, but it forms a large part of the environment from which the contemporary narrative originated.
Up to the mid twentieth centuries, the relatively little criticism was given to the narrative as a medium, and the most precious works in this format were often regional or temporary. His The Lonely Voice (1963), by proposing that narratives be a means for "people in hiding" to appeal to a dominant group, was an attempt by Frank O'Connor to explain the gender.
However, most other theory debates were based in one way or another on Edgar Allan Poe's theory that tales must have a concise, uniform effect. Most of the critique of the book concentrated on written skills. Many of these works, on the other side, are no more than essays on "how to make stories" for the young author, as serious discerning work.
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the precedence of two words, "sketch" and "history". There were practically a hundred ledgers in the United States alone that claimed to be a collection of drafts (Washington Irving's The Sketch Book, William Dean Howells's Suburban Sketches) or a collection of stories (Poe's and Melville's The Piazza The Grotesque and Arabesque).
Both of these concepts determine the polarity of the environment from which the contemporary comic arose. It'?s much older than the drawing. In essence, history is a demonstration of a culture's unbroken wish to name and conceptualise its place in the universe. She provides the storyline of a civilization for things like her own visions of herself and her home or to express her idea of her forebears and god.
Typically full of cryptically and singularly used motives, personalities and icons, stories are often only fully comprehended by members of the respective cultures to which they are part. Stories are just intra-cultural. A story is a media through which a civilization talks to itself, perpetuating its own assets and stabilizing its own identities.
Old people talk to young people through stories. In fact and journalism, the outline is essentially more analytical or prescriptive and less storytelling or drama than the novella. Moreover, the outline is naturally evocative, imperfect; the story is often hyperbolical, exaggerated. First of all, the draft is in writing, the narration is in speaking form.
Stories told at the farm or around the camp fire - or in another place similarly distant from the occasion - are almost always a reconstruction of the past. It' s just a little simplification that history was the only kind of feature film until the sixteenth and sixteenth centuries, when a growing interest of the medial classes in the realist socialist world on the one side, and in alien countries on the other, brought to the fore the outlines of subculture and alien world.
There were some authors in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries who could be called the "fathers" of contemporary history: Nicolay Gogol, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Heinrich von Kleist, Prosper Mérimée, Poe-combined historical features with sketches. Every author worked in his own way, but the general effect was to weaken something of the imagination and the paralyzing conventionalism of history while at the same it was to free the outline from its servitude to rigorous objectivity.
In other words, the contemporary narrative moves between the fanciful narrative and the photographical outline and in a certain way falls back on both. Ernest Hemingway's shorts, for example, often draw their strength from the exploiting of mythical icons (water, pelagic, groins), but are more akin to sketches than history.
In fact, Hemingway was occasionally able to hand in his seemingly objective accounts as a copy of a paper. On the other hand, the histories of Hemingway's contemporaries William Falkner are more like history. It seems rare to underestimate Feulkner, and his histories bear a serious taste of the past. But since Hemingway's narrative is more than just a sketch because of its fancy and emblematic quality, Faulkner's narrative is more than a story from the South because of its exploratory and analytical quality.
It is indisputable whether one sees the contemporary narrative as a merging of sketches and narratives, that today the narrative is an independent but still evolving one. Before people could start writing, the development of the film began. In order to facilitate the construction and memorization of stories, the early narrator often depended on stick words, firm rhymes and rhymes.
Consequently, many of the oldest tales in the word, such as the old Babel story, the epic of Gilgamesh, are in eclae. In fact, most important tales from the old Middle East were in verses: "War of the Gods", "The Story of Adapa" (both Babylonians), "The Heavenly Bow" and "The King who has forgotten" (both Canaanites).
These stories were penned in wedge writing on tone in the 2. millenium B.C.. Some of the first stories from Egypt were recorded on papyri at a similar time. Egyptians seem to have largely rewritten their stories in fiction, apparently with verses reserved for their sacred music. Undoubtedly one of the oldest remaining stories in Egypt, "The Shipwrecked Sailor" (ca. 2000 BC), is supposed to be a comforting and inspirational tale to assure the aristocrat public that seeming misery can turn into happiness in the end.
During the twelfth century, the Sinuhe case and the moralising narrative "King Cheops[Khufu] and the magicians were also chronicled. "The provoking and richly illustrated history of "The Time of Two Brothers" (or "Anpu and Bata") was chronicled in the New Kingdom, probably around 1250 BC.
Out of all the early stories in Egypt, most of which are barely didactical, this is perhaps the most richly illustrated and complicated in the storyline. Some of the oldest stories from India are not as old as those from Egypt and the Middle East. Brahmans (ca. 900-700 B.C.) mostly serve as appendices to the Vedas, but a few are written as mini-parabular.
Maybe more interesting than histories are the later histories in the Pali tongue, the Jatakas. Though these histories have a sacred framework that tries to transform them into Buddhist ethics, they are generally about sacred behavior and hands-on sentience. Another almost simultaneous compilation of India's history, the Panchatantra (about 100 bce-500 ce), is one of the most beloved works in the bookstore.
These anthologies of entertaining and moral stories of animals, similar to those of the "Aesop" in Greece, were interpreted in the sixth and eighth centuries into Central Persian, Arabic and soon after into Hebrew, Greek and Latin. A further remarkable compilation is Kathasaritsagara ("Ocean of the Rivers of Stories"), a sequence of stories written by the Sanskrit author Somadeva in the A-11.
Many of these stories come from much older materials, and they range from the fantastical stories of a turned skull to the likely stories of a faithful but misconstrued slave. In the second, third and fourth century B.C., the demanding stories that are now part of the Hebrew Bible and the Apocrypha were first down.
Tobit's novel shows an unparalleled grasp of irony; Judith manages to create a relentless and exciting suspense as it evolves to its bloodiest peak; the tale of Susanna, the most concise and least fantastical in the Apocrypha, evolves a three-sided struggle that affects the pristine beauty of Susanna, the fornication of the Ancients and Daniel's triumphalism.
Ruth, Esther and Jonah's works hardly need to be mentioned to those who are acquainted with Bible literature: they are probably among the most well-known histories in the Judeo-Christian traditions. Almost all old histories, whether from Israel, India, Egypt or the Middle East, were basically didactical. These are some of the old histories that have been taught by representing an ideals that the reader can mimic.
However, most preaching was done by demonstrating the achievement and happiness available to the "good" person and by giving a feeling of horror and poverty that came to attachments. Early Greeks made a significant contribution to the size and artistic quality of feature films. Like in India, the moralising beast story was a widespread one; many of these histories were gathered as Aesop's myths, whose first known compilation goes back to the fourth world war.
In the preatlantic period, brief legendary narratives about the adventure of the deities in affection and warmongering were also well known. Athens has put together a manual with epitoms or excerpts of these histories from around the 2. c. BC, but the histories themselves are no longer in their pristine state. Shorts also found their way into long Prosaforms, as in Hellanicus' Persika (5th c. B.C., preserved only in fragments).
Hérodot, the "father of history", saw himself as the creator and recitator of Logos (things to tell, stories). Its long storyline is pervaded by fictionalised wanderings such as the histories of Polycrates and his emerging ring, Candaules' handsome woman and Rhampsinitus' thefts. Xenophon's philosophic tale, Cyropaedia (4th c. BC), contains the tale of Abradate's warrior and his lovable and faithful wife Panthea, perhaps the first West tale of romance.
Cyropaedia also contains other storyline interpolations: the history of Pheraules, who voluntarily gave away his fortune; the history of Gobryas' assassinated boy; and various stories that describe the Arabian soldier's world. The Greeks are also usually attributed with romanticism, a long kind of fictionalism with stylised plot lines of charity, disaster and reunification.
Early Grecian romance often took the form of a set of brief narratives. Parthenius of Nicaea's romance novels, written during the rule of Augustus Caesar, are a compilation of 36 novels by unfortunate people. Milesian Valleys (no longer available) was an exceedingly beloved compilation of sexy and cheeky fairy talents written by Aristides of Miletus in the 2. cent. BC and almost immediately converted into Latin.
The diversity of these brief stories indicates that the Greeks were less persistent than previous civilizations that feature films are predominantly educational. In contrast, the Roman contributions to the brief story were small. Ovid's long poetry, Metamorphoses, is essentially a transformation of over 100 brief, well-liked stories into a theme.
Other great fictitious stories from Rome are works by Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Satyricon, 1. cent. ce) and Lucius Apuleius (The Golden Ass, 2. cent. ce). As Ovid, these men used potentially episodic stories as a whole. Though not necessarily a fine-tuning of brief stories, the Middle Ages were a period of dissemination in Europe.
It became an important means of distraction and entertainment. Between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, various civilizations adopted the feature films for their own use. It was even the angry, fierce ghost of the descending Teutonic savages who could express himself in brief essays. In Scandinavia and Iceland, the legends and legends show what dark and violence-stricken stories the intruders have taken to the South.
The Celts' romance, however, continued to be manifested in their story. It was this ghost, easy to recognize in such Ireland mythologic narratives as Longes macro n-Uislenn (probably from the ninth century), that permeated the knightly romance that evolved somewhat later on the African mainland. Romance usually dealt with one of three "affairs": the "affair of Britain" (stories of King Arthur and his knights), the "affair of France" (the Charlemagne cycle) or the "affair of Rome" (stories from ancient times, such as those of Pyramus and Thisbe and of Paris and Helena).
Many but not all of the romance is too long to be regarded as brief story. Chrétien de Troyes and Marie de France were two of the most important participants in the "Matter of Britain" in the twelfth. cent. He was talented as the author of the brief storytellings known as Breton songs.
It was only on occasions that a beloved novel like Aucassin and Nicolette (13th century) failed because of one of the three themes. The copy, a brief educational narrative usually designed to dramatise or otherwise inspired the behavior of the models, was also very well received. Gesta Romanorum ("Roman Acts") provided skeleton-like specimens that the ministers could extend to moral tales for their heralds.
They were all important as brief tales, but perhaps the most fascinating of the three are the fabrics. Originally built around the mid12th centuary, for 200 years it has been a favourite of Boccaccio and Chaucer. Often the mediaeval story teller - regardless of what kind of history he favoured - depended on a framework that made it possible for several, relatively independent histories to coexist.
Because little importance was attached to organically consistent, most narrators prefer ed a variable form that allows randomly adding or removing a story without changing its effect. The Seven Wise Men of Rome, a library of histories that is so loved that almost every single member state of Europe has had its own name.
In The Seven Wise Men, the framework in The Seven Wise Men concerns one sentenced to die; his intercessors (the Seven Wise Men) tell a new tale every passing of time, thus postponing the hanging until his virginity becomes known. It is a technology that is clearly similar to that of the Thousand and One Nights, whose parts can be traced back to the eighth cent.
Most of the Thousand and One Nights tales are surrounded by the Scheherazade tale. Recordings show that the foundation of this framework history was a mediaeval Iranian compilation, Haz?r afs?na ("Thousand Romances", no longer available). Both in the Arabic and Farsi version of the framework, the smart Scheherazade prevents her from dying by tell her Kingsman a thousand sentiments.
Although the framer is the same in both revisions, the initial Farsi tales were either superseded or dramatically changed within the framework, as the Arabic writers' collections were adjusted during the time of Maml?k (1250-1517 ce). Throughout Europe, the medieval story was fine-tuned by Geoffrey Chaucer and Giovanni Boccaccio.
In The Canterbury Tales (1387-1400), Chaucer's diversity is a reflection of the time. In" The Miller's Tale" he connects two fabrics, in" The Nun's Priest's Tale" he uses materials that are typical for animal myths; in" The Pardoner's Tale" he manages a brilliant and informative homily with a storytelling example.
Chaucer has hardly exhausted the catalog of shapes he has used. Chaucer connects the story to the narrator and exploits the relations between the different narrators, giving The Canterbury Tales a uniquely strong dramatical vibrancy. Boccaccio's mastermind, which is more focused on narration than plays, is of a different kind. When Chaucer unveils a personality through acts and claims, Boccaccio seems more interested in story than plot.
In Boccaccio, the personalities that tell the story, and usually also the personalities inside, are of secondary interest. Boccaccio, like Chaucer, framing his well-worked narratives in a metaphorical contex. Also the Decameron (from the grecian deca, 10, and 13, day) has relevance: During the Black Plague in Florence, Italy, 10 persons get together to entertain and distract each other by tell 10 each.
The unavoidable existence of Black Death stands behind every tale. This Decameron, probably from 1349 to 1353, is penned from a wide range of resources, among them fabricaux, copies, and brief novels. Instantly in popularity, the Decameron manufactured counterfeit products almost everywhere in West Europe. After Boccaccio, at least 50 novelists (as brief stories were called) were published in Italy alone.
From Boccaccio's succes and skill and, to a smaller extent, his contemporaries Franco Sacchetti, for three hundred years it was the scriptwriters who provided the West with brief tales. Rather an open and simple realisticist, he composed - or was planning to write 300 tales (200 of the Trecentonovelle ["300 Kurzgeschichten "] are available) that deal with normal Flemish living in a rather anecdotic way.
Another two well-known narrators of the fourteenth and twentieth centuries, Giovanni Fiorentino and Giovanni Sercambi, have voluntarily recognised their imitations of Boccaccio. During the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, Masuccio Salernitano's 50 story book, Il nvellino (1475), drew a great deal of interest. Although Masuccio's narratives often replace dexterity, they are funny and vivid narratives of enthusiasts and the Cleric.
Masuccio began to increase the appeal of shorter story. Nearly every Italian in the sixteenth century, it was proposed, tried the novella. The most powerful and productive author, Matteo Bandello tried almost everything from brief narratives and anaecdotes to brief romanticism.
Different other types of story appear. Ragionamenti diamond ("The Reason of Love") is characterised by a charming and charming stylistic element that is peculiar to the Ribaldic story; Anton Francesco Doni has added several surprises and ironies to his collections, I marmmi ( "The Marbles"); and Gianfrancesco Straparola experiment ing with shared folk fairyales and dialects in his own collections, Le Piaccevoli The Pleasant Nights ("The Pleasant Nights").
At the beginning of the seventeenth centuary Giambattista tried to fill the inventory (often of the fabulous kind, e.g. cat in boots) with true-to-life detail. In many cases the results were notable - a story of witches or prince with very genuine motifs and sentiments. Maybe it is the entertaining and entertaining character of Bale's 50 story book that reminds the reader of Boccaccio.
Whichever is the cause, Basiles Cunto de li le Cuti (1634; The History of Stories) is associated with Boccaccio and is called The Pentamerone ("The Five Days"). Basile's resemblance to Boccaccio suggests that in the 300 years between them the narrative has grown in prestige and distribution, but has hardly altered in its fundamental form and effect.
In France this patterns was reiterated, although the Boccaccio impulses were not felt until the fifteenth cent. The Hundred New Short Stories (c. 1460), a series of 100 hot-blooded stories, Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, is similar in appearance to the Decameron. Angoulêmes Heptaméron (1558-59; "The Seven Days"), an incomplete compilation of 72 love stories, acknowledges a similar debt.
Béroalde de Verville placed his own rabelaisian narratives in a banqueting setting in a special exhibition named Le Moyen de Parvenir, "The Way of Succeeding" (c. 1610). Béroalde's narratives are still in the Boccaccio traditions; as a set of mounted narratives, their primary concern is to entertain and distract the readers.
Spain, the most powerful country in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, helped to spread the word of brief essays. Juan Manuel's enlivened Libro de los enxiemplos del Lucanor et de Patronio (1328-35) preceeding the decameron; the anonyme " The Abencerraje ", which has been interpreted as a shepherd' novel from 1559; and above all Miguel de Cervantes' novel Echoes (1613; " Exemplary Novels ").
While Cervantes' brief imaginations differ in terms of styles and earnestness, her only aim is clear: to investigate the essence of man's sacred being. In the past, this was either didactical or escapistic. In spite of the fact that these and other famous collectors were present in Spain, the brief story was finally eclipsed by a new shape that was introduced in the sixteenth cent.
As in the early Romans, early Renaissance Spaniards often integrated episodic stories into a wider whole. Seventeenth and eighteenth century marks the brief demise of feature films in the West. A further reason for the loss of large works of feature-length films is the increasing fondness for outlines.
Even though these journalists' items were later included in the fictitious brief history, they initially dominated the fantasy. It was only on occasions that a serious history found its way into printing, and then it was mostly a product of an incumbent author such as Voltaire or Joseph Addison. Maybe the most significant decrease is in England, where the brief history was most uncertain.
The weak traditions founded in the sixteenth and seventeenth century by the beloved jest books, by the Palace of Pleasure (an compilation of mostly Euopean stories) and by the few crude tales of the English (e.g. Barnabe Rich's Farewell to Military Profession, 1581) could hardly be concealed. In the Middle Ages, feature film became above all an entertaining and entertaining media.
The entertaining tales were just no longer pertinent or liveable. Feature films vanished because they didn't react. In the nineteenth centuary, when it shook off its escapistic traps, it reemerged as a "modern brief story". "This was a new phase in the development of feature films, in which the shorts acquired a new sincerity and a new vigour and esteem.
This contemporary storyline was written almost at the same time in Germany, the USA, France and Russia. There were relatively few differences in Germany between the histories of the latter eighteenth and the older Boccaccio family. 1795 Goethe brought a series of tales into Friedrich Schiller's magazine The Horen, which were obviously written with the Decameron in the foreground.
Significantly, Goethe did not call them "short stories" (short stories), although the word was available to him. Frederick Schlegel's early engagement with the brief storytelling that appeared shortly after Goethe's "Unterhaltungen" also concentrated on Boccaccio (Nachrichten von die poeischen Werken des G. Boccaccio, 1801). However, a new kind of feature film was close at hand-a kind that embraced some of the real-world characteristics of pop culture journalists.
1827, 32 years after the publication of his own "Unterhaltungen", Goethe commentated on the distinction between the new history and the older kind. "He asked, "What is a brief history, but an occurrence which, although unknown, has taken place? Some of the works that appear in Germany under the title'Kurzgeschichte' are not a brief history, but only a history or whatever you might call it.
" In addition, two powerful reviewers, Christoph Wieland and Friedrich Schleiermacher, argue that a brief history deals with what actually took place or might take place. She had to be able to tell a brief history. Heinrich von Kleist and E.T.A. Hoffmann named their brief works on legendary topics "Narratives".
Hoffmann's fascinating histories of strange places and psychic phenomenon were probably his most influence. A further important author, Ludwig Tieck, expressly rejects realisticism as a definite part of a brief history. In his foreword to the 1829 edition of his works and as shown in his histories, Tieck presented the brief history primarily as a question of intensities and sarcasm.
He asserted that a narrative does not have to be in any way real, as long as the sequence of conclusions is "entirely in harmony with the nature and circumstances". "By permitting the author to follow an inner, perhaps strange truth and order, Tieck and the others kept contemporary history open to non-journalistic technologies.
As in Germany, the United States developed in two directions. At one end there was the reality that wanted to look at apparently actual places, occurrences or people. Regionalistic tales of the second half of the nineteenth half of the 20th centuries (by George W. Cable, Bret Harte, Sarah Orne Jewett, among others) are of this kind.
At the same time, the impressionistic history evolved, a history that is marked and meaningful by the awareness and psychologic attitude of the storyteller. Starting from this subjective aspect, these narratives appear less impartial and are less realist in an external context. Poets of this kind are narratives in which the hallucination of a key figure or storyteller provides the facts and detail of the narrative.
Several authors have helped to develop both kinds of tales. She has also written tales in which the detail is not taken from apparent realities, but from the head of a person. Nathaniel Hawthorne's brief narrative shows that neither of the two contemporary narratives, however, has the sole right to the use of symbols.
Occasionally, as in "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" (1832), Hawthorne's tales deal with symbolical occurrences as seen from a subjective perspective by the main figure. A number of US authors, from Poe to Henry James, were interested in the "Impressionist" history, which does not focus on the actual facts of the event itself, but on the sensations of the happenings in the characters' cognition.
Herman Melville's Bartleby the Scrivener (1856), the storyteller is a man who accidentally exposes his own ethical shortcomings by recounting the Bartleby tale. The Celebrated Jumping Frog", 1865; "The Story of Old Ram", 1872; "Baker's Blue Jay Yarn", 1879), all impressionistic narratives are distorting the apparent realities in a way that mirrors the men who speak.
Amberse Bierce's famed "An Owl Creek Bridge" (1891) is another example of this kind of history in which the viewer sees a ghost at work - distortive, fabricated and imaginative - rather than an impartial image of reality. Although Howells was as interested in anthropology and behavior as any of the impressionistic authors, he did not want his detail to be filtrated by a biased and thus distortionary Narration.
However, in other guardians, the impressionistic technology could describe man's reactions subtle. "Time and again, in reviewing," James notes, "the short things I have collected in the edition have not turned out to be my own depiction of the matter as impersonality, but as my depiction of the sense that someone has of it.
" Using a key intelligentsia, which is the "concrete representative or representative of the non-personal author" in the narrative, allows James all the benefits of expressionism and at the same time the liberty and portability that are shared by tales told by a bodiless voic. The America of the nineteenth was at least in one respect similar to Italy of the sixteenth century: there was an abundance of second- and third-class shorts.
Yet there was a considerable increase in regard for shape, and most of the great artist of the 20th centuries were active in its evolution. Perhaps the most obvious evidence of the earnestness with which many authors and scholars have looked at the novel is the amount and nature of dissent.
The most important US reviewer of the brief was Edgar Allan Pack. Even a maker of powerful impressionistic technique, Mr. Cole thought that the decisive feature of the brief would be the oneness of effect. "An astute writer constructs a story," writes Peter in his 1842 reviewer's 1842 Hawthorn's Twice-Told Tales.
Thus Poe's theory keeps the narrative open for experiments and expansion, while it requires that the narrative should prove the artist's industriousness and serenity. As Henry James noted, "when Mérimée was chosen to the French Academy in 1844 with his few little tales, the new fascination for the brief history was also apparent in France.
" As" Columbia" (1841) or" Carmen" (1845), which became additionally famous as an operatic, show, Mérimée's tales are masterworks of distanced and arid observations, although the theme itself is often emotionalized. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, France was producing such diverse shorts as America in the nineteenth centuries - although French impressionistic history was generally less widespread.
It is as if the people of France themselves did not have an excellent impressionistic story teller who was ignored by the critic in his state. These two great Impressionists were Charles Nodier, who was experimenting with symbolism, and Gérard de Nerval, whose Les Filles du Feu (1854; "Daughters of Fire") was created from memories of his own time.
Famous for their work in other genres, they have also tried novels such as Honoré de Balzac and Gustave Flaubert and poetry such as Alfred de Vigny and Théophile Gautier. Alphonse Daudet is one of the most interesting authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in France, whose tales mirror the range of interests and technologies of the age.
In 1866, his early and most famous tales (Lettres de mon molulin; "Letters from My Mill") created a pictorial romance; his tales of the Franco-Prussian war (Les Contes de Lundi, 1873; "Monday Tales") are more objective and real, and the social concerns of his latest works betray his growing interest in natu -ristic determinism.
By far the greatest screenwriter in France is Guy de Maupassant, a champion of impartial shorthair. In essence, Maupassant's tales are narratives that record an enlightening aspect of the life of middle-class people. Usually this decisive instant is told in a well drawn pattern, although perhaps in some tales like "Boule de suif" (1880; "Ball of Tallow") and "The Necklace" (1881) the action is too constructed, the inverse twist too tidy and the trick too obvious.
Maupassant's simple and flowing fiction catches the virginity and corrupt behavior of man in other tales, such as "The House of Madame Tellier" (1881). In the first two centuries of the nineteenth centuary, mythical script became the fashion in Russia. The most widely reading poet was Ivan Krylov, whose tales were strongly taken from Aesop, La Fontaine and various Teutonic springs.
When Krylov's narratives made brief essays famous in Russia, the narratives of the esteemed Russian writer Aleksandr Pushkin attracted great interest for the formal. Like Mérimée in France (who was one of the first Pushkin to be translated into French), Pushkin maintained an independent, more classic styling for his histories of emotive conflict ("The Queen of Spades", 1834).
Mikhail Lermontov's "A Hero of our Time" (1840), which actually comprises five more or less related tales, was also very much loved and respects. It is Nikolai Gogol, however, who heads the shorter Russia novel; Fyodor Dostoyevsky noted that all the authors of the shorter Russia novel "emerged from Gogol's coat", an reference to the master's best-known one.
Gogol in a way developed his own impressionistic technique in Russia at the same time as Poe in America. Five years before Poe Gogol publishes his Arabesques (1835), Gogol collects some of his histories under a similar name. Gogol's histories of delusion, bewildering realities and dreams, like Poe's, are among his best histories ("Nevsky Prospect" and "Diary of a Madman", both 1835).
Gogol's "The Mantle" (1842) was without doubt the most important history in Russia in the first half of the nineteenth-century. Gogol's history seems to prejudge both the Impressionist style of Dostoevsky's Underground Notes (1864) and the realist style of Leo Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886).
Although he introduced a spirit narrative ("Bezhin Meadow", 1852) into his realist scene, he did not try to introduce a spirit (as Gogol had done in "The Overcoat"). Feodor Dostoyevsky developed some of Gogol's interests and experiment ing with it. For example, the early history "White Nights" (1848) is a "love affair from the memory of a dreamer", as the subheading says; the name of one of his last tales, "The Dream of the Ridiculous Man" (1877), also recalls Poe and Gogol.
Anton Chekhov was the Soviet champion of impartial history. Chekhov is the most consistent screenwriter. Although often likened to Maupassant, Chekhov is much less interested in building a well-potted plot; not much happens in Chekhov's tales, although much is unveiled about his personalities and the qualities of their life.
Tales like "The Grasshopper" (1892), "The Darling" (1898) and "In the Ravine" (1900) - to name but three - show Chekhov's perceptions, his sympathy, his subtle humor and his humor.