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Defining Romanticism[===="/w/index.php?title=Romanticism&action=edit§ion=1" title="Edit section" : define romance">edit]>>
Exercising emphasised intensive feelings as an authentical fount of esthetic experiences and set new accents on feelings such as fear, fright and fear, and reverence - especially for the new esthetic category of the majesty and beauties of the outdoors. Contrary to the rationalism and classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism enlivened the Middle Ages and artistic and storytelling aspects that were seen as genuinely mediaeval in order to avoid demographic increase, early settlement and modernity.
It was the mastermind's or artist's approach, who through this creative procedure was able to create his own work from nothing, that was the quintessential basis of Romanticism, and derivation was the gravest sins. 13 ] This notion is often referred to as "romantic originality". "August Wilhelm Schlegel, a Romantic scholar and interpreter, argumented in his book entitled Readures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most incredible force of mankind is its ability to share and to deviate in opposite directions.
Time, usually referred to as romanticism, differs widely between different nations and different art forms. It was described by Margaret Drabble in the literary sources as "approximately between 1770 and 1848", and few data are found that are much older than 1770. Between 1789 or 1798, the latter a very common opinion, and around 1830, perhaps a little later than some other reviewers.
26 ] In other areas and other lands, the era known as Romanticism can be very different; for example, Romanticism has generally only been considered a great creative power since 1910, but in an extremely expansion the Four Last Songs by Richard Strauss are referred to as " Spätromantik " in stylistic terms and were written in 1946-48.
27 ] In most areas, however, the romanticism is said to be over around 1850 or before. In the course of the twentieth centuries, the more detailed characterisation and idiosyncratic definitions of Romanticism were the object of debates in the areas of spiritual and literary histories, with no great degree of consent being foreseen.
His relation to the French Revolution, which began in 1789 in the early phases of the French Revolution, is clearly important, but very different, according to geographical location and personalities. One can say that most romanticists are by and large advanced in their viewpoints, but a significant number had or always evolved a broad palette of right-wing views and centralism was strongly associated with romanticism in many lands, as discusses in detail below.
For over a hundred years in the philosophical and intellectual histories, the romanticism of Isaiah Berlin was seen as a disturbance of the classical West tradition of reasonableness and the concept of ethical absoluteness and commonly accepted norms, which "led to something like the meltdown of the concept of unbiased truth" and thus not only to the concept of na-tionalism, but also to the concept of Nazism and allitarianism.
For the Romantics, Berlin says: "The end of Romanticism is characterized in some areas by a new realist approach that influenced literary, especially novel and play, paintings and even musical, through Verismo oper. With Balzac and Flaubert in the literary world and Courbet in the painterly world, Stendhal and Goya were important predecessors of the realist trend in their medium.
But the romantic lifestyles, which today often represent the entrenched and surety against which the Realists revolted, flourished in many areas for the remainder of the 20th and beyond. From about 1850 such works are described by some authors as "late romanticism" and by others as "neo-romanticism" or "post-romanticism", but other areas usually do not use these notions. In English literary and pictorial art, the practical concept "Victorian" prevents a further characterization of time.
The early romantic optimistic vision and faith that the realm was in the midst of great changes and improvements had largely disappeared in North Europe, and some arts became more conventional, politically and controversially, as their makers dealt with the realm as it was. In the arts, the depictions of intensive emotions as well as the romantic scenes of history and exoticism remain present, but experimenting with shape and technology has generally been diminished and often substituted by painstaking techniques, as in the poetry of Tennyson or many canvases.
Though not realistic, the fine arts of the latter part of the nineteenth centuries were often very elaborate, and people were proud to add genuine detail in a way that former romantics did not have to struggle with. Numerous romantic notions about the essence and aim of the arts, especially the supreme importance of the original, remain important for later generation and are often based on contemporary beliefs despite the resistance of theorists.
Romanticism found recurring topics in literary incantations or critiques of the past, the worship of "sensitivity" with its accentuation of woman and child, the isolating of the painter or storyteller, and mutual esteem for the outdoors. In addition, several romantic writers such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne founded their works on the supernatural/ocult and the psychological sciences.
The Romantic period was inclined to view the satirical as something that did not deserve serious consideration, a preconception that is still powerful today. 40 ] The romantic literary movements were preceeded by the Enlightenment and followed by realism. A number of writers quote the author Isabella di Morra from the sixteenth-century as the first forerunner of romanticism. Their texts on subjects of solitude and solitude, reflecting the dramatic occurrences of their lives, are regarded as "an impressing omen of Romanticism", different from the Petrarchist fashions of the times founded on the philosophies of charity.
Forerunners of the Romantic period in British lyricism date back to the mid-18th centuries, among them personalities such as Joseph Warton (director at Winchester College) and his sibling Thomas Warton, professor of poetics at Oxford University. Chatterton is generally regarded as the first romantic writer in England. The early Romanticism was inspired by the early Romanticism of the Scotish writer James Macpherson with the internationally successful Ostian poem series, which Goethe and the young Walter Scott were inspired by in 1762.
Chatterton as well as Macpherson's work contained frauds, since what they were claiming was previous literary work they had found or assembled was in fact their own work. Commencing with Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto (1764), the Gothic novel was an important forerunner of a line of romanticism, with a joy of terror and menace and exotic painterly backdrops, complemented in Walpole's case by his part in the early resurrection of Gothic architecture.
In 1759-67, Tristram Shandy, a novel by Laurence Sterne, presented a bizarre interpretation of the anti-rational, romantic novel to the British literature world. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe had an early Nazi influenced Germany, whose novel Die Leiden des jungen Werther, published in 1774, had young men throughout Europe who emulated his character, a young painter with a very sensible and ardent temper.
A further philosophical impact came from the ideals of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling, who made Jena (where Fichte used to live, as well as Schelling, Hegel, Schiller and the Schlegel brothers) a centre of early Romanticism in Germany (see Jena Romanticism). Ludwig Tieck, Novalis (Heinrich von Ofterdingen, 1799), Heinrich von Kleist and Friedrich Hölderlin were important writers.
Later, Heidelberg became a centre of German Romanticism, where writers and writers such as Clemens Brentano, Achim von Arnim and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff frequently gathered in literature and theater. The most important motives of German Romanticism are travel, the natural world, for example the German Forest, and myth. Later German Romanticism by e.g. E. T. A. Hoffmann's Der Sandmann, 1817, and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff's Das Marmorbild, 1819, had more darkly painted motives and got Gotische elemets.
In Romanticism, the importance of the virginity of infancy, the importance of fantasy and race theory combine to create an unparalleled importance of popular writing, non-classical folklore and children's writing, especially in Germany. 44 ] Unlike the much later work of Hans Christian Andersen, who published his fictional stories in Danish from 1835, these works were at least mainly founded on collective folktales, and the Grimms stayed faithful to the narrative styles in their early versions, but later rewrote some parts.
Some of the most important characters in English literary life are regarded as the group of writers, among them William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and the much older William Blake, later followed by the solitary character of John Clare; also such writers as Walter Scott from Scotland and Mary Shelley and the essays writers William Hazlitt and Charles Lamb.
In 1798 the Lyric Ballads were published with many of the best poetry by Wordsworth and Coleridge, often considered the beginning of the theorem. Coleridge's longest verse in the book was The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, which showed the Gothic side of English Romanticism and the scenes of many works.
At the time of their writings, the poets at the lake were considered a fringe group of extremists, although they were backed by the critics and writers William Hazlitt and others. Unlike Germany, English literary romanticism had little to do with Nazism, and the Romantics were often viewed with distrust for the sympathies that many felt for the French Revolution ideal, whose breakdown and substitution by Napoleon's regime, as elsewhere in Europe, was a shocking experience for the French people.
Although his fiction was a celebration of Scott's Scottishness and Scott was a political unionist. Robert Burns' texts in Scotland and Thomas Moore from Ireland mirrored their lands and romantic interest in popular music in different ways, but had neither a completely romantic access to their work.
Unlike many Romantics, Byron's widespread private lives seemed to correspond to his work, and his 36 years of age in 1824, when he helped the Greek War of Independence, seemed from afar to be an appropriate romantic ending and to consolidate his myth. Keats 1821 and Shelley 1822 both passed away in Italy, Blake (almost 70) 1827, and Coleridge largely stopped writing in the 1820s.
Romanticism is often considered in the debate in English literary circles as the end of the 1920s or even before, although many writers of the following decade were no less in favour of romanticism. Jane Austen was the most important English writer in high romanticism, except for Walter Scott, whose largely conservative worldview had little in common with her romantic counterparts, while maintaining a firm faith in decency and societal rule, although critics[who?] have discovered trembling under the surfaces of some works, especially Mansfield Park (1814) and Persuasion (1817).
50 ] But around the middle of the 20th and early 20th centuries, the Brontë families, who lived in Yorkshire, wrote some of their most romantic work. Whereas these two books were composed and released after the end of Romanticism, their books were strongly inspired by the romantic writings they had been reading as prehil. Following the restoration of the Bourbons, Romanticism in France evolved in the living Paris theater, with plays by Shakespeare, Schiller (in France an important romantic author) and arrangements by Scott and Byron alongside some of the writers who began writing in the end of the 1820'.
Like Dumas, Hugo is best known for his books and wrote The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831), one of the most famous works that became a model of Romanticism in France. This foreword to his unlisted piece "Cromwell" gives an important expression of Romanticism in France, in which it says: "There are no laws or models".
Mostly a playwright, Alfred de Vigny remained known for his piece about the work of the British writer Chatterton (1835), perhaps his best work. Today Stendhal is probably the most renowned writer of his time in France, but he has a complicated relationship to Romanticism and is distinguished by his pervasive psycological insights into his figures and his realisticism, which is rare in romantic clichés.
The Romantic period in Poland often began with the publishing of Adam Mickiewicz's first poetry in 1822 and ended with the suppression of the January Uprising of 1863 against the Russians. There was a strong interest in Poland's past. 70 ] Poland's Romantic period brought to life the old "Sarmatism" tradition of the St. Petersburg or the aristocracy of Poland.
The old tradition and tradition have been revitalized and positively presented in the Messiah movements and in works of great Poles such as Adam Mickiewicz (Pan Tadeusz), Juliusz S?owacki and Zygmunt Krasi?ski as well as in the works of Henryk Sienkiewicz. It was this strong link between Romanticism in Poland and Romanticism in Poland that became one of the determining characteristics of Romanticism in Poland, which differed from other nationalities.
71 ] As many academics have emphasized, the Romanticism of Poland, which is shaped by the general mind and the fundamental idea of European Romanticism, is one of a kind, as it has largely evolved outside Poland and focuses emphatically on the question of Poland's nationality. In the early 1830s, during the so-called "Great Emigration", the Poles, together with senior members of their governments, abandoned Poland and settled in France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey and the United States.
During the second phase, many Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banned from Poland by the occupation forces for their political-subversiveness. In two early plays, Nie-boska komedyia (1835; The Undivine Comedy) and Irydion (1836; Iridion), and in the later Psalmy wwww. psalmy www. psalion.org (1845), he claimed that Poland was the Christ of Europe: selected by God to bear, endure and finally rise from the dead of the age.
The early Russian romanticism is associated with the writers Konstantin Batyushkov (A Vision on the Shore of the Lethe, 1809), Wassily Zhukovsky (The Bard, 1811; Svetlana, 1813) and Nikolay Karamzin (Poor Liza, 1792; Julia, 1796; Martha the Mayoress, 1802; The Sensitive and the Cold, 1803). However, the main representative of Romanticism in Russia is Alexander Pushkin (The Prisoner of the Caucasus, 1820-1821; The Robber Brothers, 1822; Ruslan and Ludmila, 1820; Eugene Onegin, 1825-1832).
Pushkin's work inspired many writers in the nineteenth centuries and eventually resulted in his acclaim as Russia's greatest lyric. 73 ] Other romantic writers from Russia are Mikhail Lermontov (A Hero of our Time, 1839), Fyodor Tyutchev (Silentium!, 1830), Evgeni Baratynsky (Eda, 1826), Anton Delvig and Wilhelm Küchelbecker. Strongly inspired by Lord Byron, Lermontov attempted to investigate the romantic accentuation of transcendent dissatisfaction with the company and the self, while Tyutchev's poetry often described natural phenomena or passionate loves.
Scientists see Spanish Romanticism as proto-existentialism because it is more afraid than the movements in other Europe. For example, Foster et al. say that the work of Spanish writers such as Espronceda, Larra and others in the nineteenth centuries showed a "metaphysical crisis".
77 ] These commentators place more emphasis on the connection between the 19 th centuryspanic writers and the immediate aftermath of the existence movements. Richard Caldwell says that the writers we associate with Romantic Spain today were actually forerunners of the literature movements that arose in the 1920s.
78 ] This concept is discussed, because there are writers who emphasize that Spain's romance is one of the oldest in Europe, while some claim that Spain really had no era of romantic literature. 80 ] This dispute underlines a certain singularity of Spain's romance compared to its opposite numbers in Europe.
Spanish-Spanish South America Romanticism was strongly inspired by Esteban Echeverría, who in the 1830s and 1940s was a writer. A romantic poem called William Cullen Bryant's "To a Waterfowl" was written in the United States at least in 1818. Early publication of US romantic Gothic literary works included Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) and Rip Van Winkle (1819), followed by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper, with its focus on epic modesty and glowing landscapes of an already alien mythical border populated by "noble savages", similar to Rousseau's philosophic The Last of the Mohicans, which is illustrated by Uncas.
While Edgar Allan Poe's narratives of macabren and his balladesque poems were more powerful in France than at home, the romantic US novel evolved with the full ambience and melodramatic drama of Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter (1850). Subsequent transcendentalist authors such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show signs of their influences and fantasies, as does the romanticism of Walt Whitman.
Emily Dickinson's poems - almost illegible in her own day - and Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick can be understood as the epitome of US romanticism. But in the 1880', however, there was competition between romanticism and psychologic and socialism. The advent of Romanticism in France was postponed by the great influence of Neoclassicism on the academic world, but from Napoleon's times it became more and more fashionable, first in the shape of historical pictures propagated for the new government, of which Girodets Ossian, who received the spirits of France's heroes, was one of the first for Napoleon's Château de Malmaison.
95 ] A new family of the École française was developing romantic style, but still focused on historical paintings with a politic narrative. Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) had his first hit with The Charging Chasseur, a Rubens derivative of the Heroes Army character, at the Paris Salon of 1812 in the years of the Empire, but his next great work, The Raft of the Medusa of 1821, remained the greatest accomplishment of Romantic historical painters, who at the time had a strong anti-government embassy.
98 ] But the degree to which he was a romantic is a complicated issue. 99 ] But he, more than any other contemporary artists, illustrated the romantic value of expressing the artist's emotions and his own imagination. 100 ] He also agreed with many of the romantic artists on a freer approach to color, emphasizing the new meaning of brush strokes and the impostro, which in neo-classicism was rather suppressed under a self-locking surface finishing.
A further tendency were very large Apocalypse historical pictures, which often combined extremely violent acts of nature or godly anger with man-made catastrophes and tried to surpass The Raft of the Medusa, and now often made comparison with Hollywood productions. John Martin was the premier British painter in this genre, whose minute characters were eclipsed by violent quakes and gales and who worked their way through the Bible catastrophes and those that will come in the last few dawn.
In Russia there were the portrayers Orest Kiprensky and Vasily Tropinin, with Ivan Aivazovsky specialising in naval paintings, and in Norway Hans Gude drew fjord paintings. Francesco Hayez (1791-1882) was the Romantic leader in Italy in the mid-19th cent. As a neo-classical painters, his long, fruitful and highly prosperous carreer led him through romanticism and at the other end as a young women's sensationalist.
During his romantic era he performed many historic plays of "troubadour" trends, but on a very large scale, strongly inspired by Gian Battista Tiepolo and other Latin American masters. The literary romanticism had its equivalent in the art of America, especially in the enthusiasm for an unbridled US countryside in the Hudson River School canvases.
Painter like Thomas Cole, Albert Bierstadt and Frederic Edwin Church and others have often express romantic topics in their work. It also shows the romantic idea that Mother Earth is mighty and will finally conquer the ephemeral world. The historiography was very strong, and many would say harmful, affected by romanticism.
In the nineteenth centuries, Romantic statehood had a largely adverse influence on historiography, as each country was inclined to develop its own interpretation of the story, and the criticism, even disapproval, of early historian was often superseded by a trend to construct romantic histories with clearly differentiated characters and desperado.
122 ] The ideologies of the time placed great value on the race coherency and the ancient world of the nations and emphasized the continuation between past and present times, which led to a sense of mystical nationalism. In the twentieth and twentieth centuries it was dedicated to the fight against the romantic historic legends of the nineteenth centuries.
Romance has been the way of playing the game, relying more on fast, tactful manoeuvres than on long-term strategy plan. 124 ] The romantic period of the game of chess will generally have started with Joseph MacDonnell and Pierre LaBourdonnais, the two dominating pawns of the 1830s. The" Immortal Game", performed by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June 1851 in London - where Anderssen made courageous offerings to ensure his win by giving up both the towers and a Bishop, then his Blessed Mother, and then checkmated his adversary with his three small figures left over - is regarded as an outstanding example of romantic play.
125 ] The end of the romantic period of checkers is regarded as the Vienna Tournament of 1873, in which Wilhelm Steinitz made position playing and close playing popular. Popularity, or citizenship, was shaped in English as part of this opposition to the now seizing Kaiser. In 1806 Fichte reflected the unification of speech "To the Germans ": romance plays an important part in the renaissance of many nations of Middle Europe without their own nation-states, not least in Poland, which recently did not regain its autonomy when the Russian military destroyed the Polish uprising under Nicholas I.
The rebirth and re-interpretation of old legends, practices and tradition by romantic writers and artists assisted to differentiate their native culture from that of the dominating countries and to crystallize the mythology of romantic naturalism. The patriotic ism, the nationalist, the revolutionary and the militaristic fight for independency also became widespread subjects in the art of the time.
The most important romantic writer of this part of Europe was Adam Mickiewicz, who came up with the concept that Poland was the Messiah of the world. He was destined to endure the pain that Jesus endured in order to rescue all men. Poland's self-image as "Christ among the peoples" or martyrs of Europe can be attributed to its story of Christianity and invasion triumph.
The Catholic Church was the fortress of Poland's cultural heritage and the main patron of the country's cultural heritage during the war. In Poland, the divisions were seen as a Poles victim for the safety of the West's population. In" The Book of the Poles Nations and Pilgrimage" Mickiewicz describes his view of Poland as the Messiah and Christ of the Nations that would rescue humanity.
Some of the best known are the morality of Part II, the individualistic and romanticism of Part IV, and the deep pathological, messianic and chromatic visions in Part III of the work. He wrote in his volume Mickiewicz hermeticz about the hermetical, theosophical and alchemistic philosophies on the page and freemasonic symbolism.
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"Although it may seem a surprise to us that after the romanticism changed older concepts of the literary world, in the Middle Ages authorities were valued more strongly than authors. Authentic authenticity is a contemporaneous and romantic conception; classicism was largely mass-produced, and the "modern" avant-garde (at the beginning of this century) questioned the romantic notion of " out of nowhere " with its collages, moustaches on the Mona Lisa, arts over arts and so on.
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