Online Science PublishingScience online publisher
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OA: Changes in the publication of science worldwide
Accessibility to academic ressources is vital for the analysis of the available basis of proof, the design of research reports and the compilation of academic work. It' also important for review and processing of magazine and book submission requiring factual and reference validations and follow-up of duplicate or plagiarised work. University graduates have extensive experience of journals, dissertations, textbooks and lectures as an indispensible instrument for expanding their students' basic understanding and translation abilities.
For this reason, the best academia in the industry offer their lecturers and scholars full accessibility to a large number of online and printed materials; galleries digitise their printed materials and extend their ties to ejournals, especially Open Accessibility magazines. The emergence and widespread use of digitised technology for science communications over the last two centuries has transformed the idea of accessing scientific ressources.
In view of the urgent need for information immediately available after publishing, most incumbent publishing houses have set up electronic archives or e-libraries for their personal and institutionals ((e.g. SpringerLink, Elsevier's ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library). PubMed Central is a free full-text electronic archive that has been further developed by the US National library of Medicine and included in PubMed and PubMed Central.
Institution and personal re-positories have been established and have expanded quickly to make it easier to obtain academic information, network within expert circles and collaborate in research. The best example of such an effort is ResearchGate, a network for researchers that promotes the exchange of basic research information and the publication of papers to transform the science debate worldwide.
After all, many brand-new OA periodicals have been published on the Net, followed by a tendency to convert subscriptions to OA publications in whole or in part. Indeed, most magazines in small expert groups and non-mainstream science nations have turned the challenges of digitisation and open accessibility into an occasion to present their best research to the worldwide fellowship and advance science in their states.
Croatian Medical is one of the best illustrations of a nationwide Open Accession magazine, which made full text of its contributions available online, accessed the entire global population, was filed in PubMed Central and raised its quotations to the highest rate of publication in Southeast Europe (1.2).
The OA scheme, financed by state-run academia, has been chosen by all of Iran's bio-medical periodicals (n=163), and some have been filed in PubMed Central, which may influence the scholarly excellence and effectiveness of the periodicals. Finally, the Open-Access Movement in Iran can be reflected in the reliability and indexation of periodicals, most of which are difficult to index by MEDLINE and Web of Science (3).
One third of the 187 OA medicine periodicals in KoreaMed, which are included in the KoreaMed data base, are now also stored in PubMed Central, as the standard of OA content management and guidelines has been enhanced (4). Recently, Indo-Swiss researchers have raised OA consciousness, 407 OAJs have been subscribed to the Directory of Open Access/DAJ and 25 OAJs have been added to the Register of Open Accessible Records (ROAR) (5).
Lastly, a recent survey has shown that the move towards Open Accessibility is favoured and promoted by institutions of higher education and specialist associations in Latin American, Eastern European and Asian states ((6). Open-access has attracted widespread support in advanced economies too, especially among large corporate publishing houses, which have chosen various types of businesses to make open market research more accessible and to enhance the effectiveness of public research.
The United States is currently at the top of the country ranking in the DOAJ data base with its 1302 OAJs ((7). State funding of OA publications in the United Kingdom has resulted in the approval of the 2012 NAP, which will allow a significant portion of research funding for OA publications and archival documents to be made available in public domain in 2012 (8.9).
The Research Councils UK, a research promotion co-ordinator, therefore emphasised the intent to commission publication in periodicals with "comprehensive Open Access". "It is important that one of the largest research sponsors in Great Britain, the Welcome Trust, has already given a good example with the allocation of Open Accessibility grants from 2007.
It will take at least five years to move to full and immediate Open Acces. Meanwhile, the UK's powerful press, in particular The Lancet magazines, have supported the policy and offered Open Accessibility opportunities that work alongside the conventional subscriptions scheme (10). In 2011, the BMJ Group started the BMJ Open Journal, which was published in PubMed and Web of Science, archiving around 1400 articles of PubMed Central and receiving its first JIF of 1.58 in 2013.
BMJ Open's fast growing is not a surprise, as PLOS One, a flag ship of the Public Library of Science's (US) Open Access magazine for science and technology, has already achieved a previous high of more than 69 websites, which have been stored in PubMed Central since its launch in 2006, with the latest JIF of 3.73 and a cumulative 133?.
The new publication model's feasibility and effect are illustrated by these success stories. This is also mirrored in the steadily increasing number of organisations that prescribe Open Access: 177 organisations and 81 support organisations have been registering with ROAR since 1 August 2013 (11). OA is relatively new to the publishing industry and is still in development, with some of its possibilities being tested worldwide.
The Budapest Open Accession Initiative published a declaration with the first OA in 2002 (12). The focus is on unlimited online accessibility to peer-reviewed periodicals, textbooks, theses, lectures and other types of scientific information. In order to fully embrace the Open-Access approach, magazines and other types of medium must ensure an option to subscriptions and pay-per-view charges, enhance the technological and online legibility of their editions and organise their long-term storage in an area such as PubMed Central.
For most of the OA model's long-established or new journals, research grants and item handling fees (APC) were the most difficulty. For example, the British research promoters have imposed the provision of part of their resources for free accessibility, although this action has not led to an overall rise in expenditure on research and development activities.
This can affect the preference of the writers of their targeted magazines and promote what is known as "Gold Open Access", which demands remuneration for publishing and accessing it immediately after publishing. The Public Library of Science, BioMed Central, Dove Medical Press and Libertas Academica are among the Open Account publishing houses that have successfully applied the golden standard through various means of funding and have not compromised the overall acceptance of the securities.
BioMed Central, for example, has a fair handling fee from ?, which can be reduced and remitted for writers from low-income and for those who do not have research-funding. Many other publishing houses, however, especially those that use the "author pays" options, have been heavily criticised for trying to raise the number of documents with converted payment (13.14).
A major argument against publishing houses that corrupt the entire Open Accessibility system is that the absence of fundamental QA by qualified evaluators and writers opens the doors to contributions that are not acceptable for most magazines with a powerful structure and a high publishing barrier. Open and open approach is a more lasting and impartial approach to the publishing, dissemination and preservation of scientific work.
However, its open nature will vary according to the blocking periods for publicly archived content after publishing, which range from 6 to 24 month.
As a rule, OA documents are released under a CC licence, which allows the free dissemination, re-use and remixing of content for non-commercial use, with appropriate references (15). A drawback of the so-called so-called so-called so-called repository management is that the self archive policies in various repo archives significantly reduce the online circulation of main publication resources by leading the reader to the repository and especially increases the corresponding download from the PubMed Central repository (16).
Many periodicals issued by specialist associations that promote the interests of smaller groups are generating significant revenues from ads and subscription sales. Hybride Open Acces seems to be the most appropriate publication format for this series of periodicals, diversifying funding through open accessed funding to create distinct contributions and to diversify subscription revenues (17).
Traditionally "closed" periodicals such as Oxford University Press, Springer, Wiley, Elsevier and Bentham Science publishers also use the Gold Open Account hybride publishing system. As a result, periodicals are preferred destinations for scientists who are required to open their research to public funding and maintain a repository of writers who do not have free funding and trust in the conventional publishing approach.
Although the hybride approach appears beneficial and equitable for publishing houses and writers, the cost and level of implementations may differ. This may also result in non-ethical prioritisation of OA securities that have been published and in refusal or delay in the publishing of unpaid securities (18). OA publishing is obviously becoming a worldwide phenomenon. An overwhelming number of governments, academia and specialist associations convert their subscriptions to Open Accesss publishing, while most major business publishing houses publish a large number of brand-new Open Accesss magazines (6).
This step makes it important to assess the impact and suggest a publication format adapted to a particular academic and economic context. Open Access Publishing has developed the Open Peer Review approach, which is widely used by some of the world' s leading Open Account Publishing companies (e.g. BioMed Central). With proper implementation, open-peer review as a means of monitoring and controlling can also help in the process of transforming and internationally recognizing most of the magazines currently held responsible for piracy.
Introducing Open Acces has also altered the webometrical and bibliometrical data for most scientific periodicals by drawing users' interest to online content that is easy to use. The American Physiological Society has conducted a study that compares full-text full-text releases and new readers in the eleven periodicals it publishes, showing significant benefits of the items opened in the first half of the year after their release over their games on subscriptions (19).
As the quotations for these two items were analysed within the first year after their release, no distinction was found. A large multi-disciplinary survey which compares 610 OA periodicals with 7609 OA periodicals on the Web of Science and 1327 OA periodicals with 11 November OA periodicals in Scopus also found no differences in the frequency of quotations after checking the subject, the magazine's date and the publisher's site (20).
However, in this survey, OA periodicals with editorial fees were rated as more favourable to citations than the same periodicals in which publication is free, particularly with regard to the two-year JIF. In other words, the consequences of Open access are not only connected with the easy accessibility and high level of findability of full-text documents (21). A number of elements affect the whole system, and the main actors in this area remain the qualtity, relevancy and reputation of the republished wells.
The Open-Access movement is slowly transforming the paths of academic research, literary research, journal publishing and archival. Progress in the field of electronic publishing forms the basis for better formats, legibility and fast dissemination of research information. However, the change in the publishing system is mainly concerned with the qualtity of publishing and the unjustifiable increase in handling charges (22).
Whereas conventional academic publishing features such as impartial peer reviews, selected journals indexation and extensive rankings can help to ensure the global reliability of Open Accessibility publishing schemes, reliable research finance and more open accreditation of Open Accessibility publications can contribute to the long-term viability of them.