Old Science Fiction

Ancient Science Fiction

Pal's production of When Worlds Collide was the Old Testament answer. Science fiction film genre is as extensive as the galaxy. Explore our large collection of old and rare science fiction books, from the most popular classics to science fiction books. Transport me up and print out the logbook so I can start deciphering these strange-looking alien writings. Science fiction sci-fi writings.

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There is a wide variety of science fiction literature and its precise definitions remain a controversial issue for scientists and followers. It is this absence of consent that is mirrored in the debate on the story of the discipline, especially its precise origin. Secondly, science fiction only became possible between the seventeenth and early nineteenth century after the science revolutionary and the great inventions in astrology, physic and math.

It was in the 19th and 19th centuries, when the profound incorporation of science and invention into everyday lives aroused greater interest in books that examined the relation between technique, culture and the human being. The scholar Robert Scholes refers to the story of science fiction "the story of mankind's shifting attitude to place and place.... the story of our increasing perception of the cosmos and the place of our race in this world.

"In recent years, the discipline has become diverse and has become an important influential force in the world' s cultures and mindsets. A number of antique or early contemporary lyrics exist, among them many epic stories and poetry, which contain fantastic or "science fiction" components, but were still composed as an independent type before the development of science fiction.

Often these lyrics contain features such as a fantastic journey to the lunar or the use of imaginary cutting-edge technologies. Though fantastic and science fiction-like features and images abound in tales such as Ovid's Metamorphoses (A.D. 8), the old English poet Beowulf (A.D. 8-11) and the Central European epos Nibelungenlied (c. 1230), their relatively low level of reference to science or technique brings them more into line with the imagination than science fiction.

Among the first and most frequently quoted essays for those looking for early forerunners of science fiction is the antique mesopotamic epic of Gilgamesh, with the oldest text version having been found to be around 2000 BC. Lester del Rey, an US science fiction writer, was one of those advocates of using Gilgamesh as a starting point and argued that "science fiction is as old as the first fiction made.

"Pierre Versins, the author of science fiction in France, also said that Gilgamesh was the first science fiction work because it dealt with man's rationality and the pursuit of mortality. 3 ] Gilgamesh also shows a tidal sequence that in a way is similar to the work of the apocalyptical science fiction. But the shortage of specific science or science at work has resulted in some[who? ] arguing that it is better categorised than fantasy work.

Aristophanes, the early Hellenic dramatist, has several works that contain items often associated with the "fantastic journey", which includes flights to another underworld. As Roubi [28] says, the last two sections of the Arab theology novel F?dil ibn N?tiq (c. 1270), also known as Theologus Autodidactus, by the Arab universal scholar Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) can be described as science fiction.

Ibn al-Nafis' novel addresses various science fiction aspects such as spontaneity, future studies, apocalypse, as well as echatology, the resurrected and the hereafter, but instead of giving psychic or mystical explanation for these occurrences, he tried to illustrate these steps of action with his own comprehensive scholarly understanding of the fields of anatomy, biology, psychology, space, astronomy, space and theology.

Ibn al-Nafis, for example, presents his scholarly metabolic science through this novel[28] and refers to his own scholarly exploration of the lung circuit to elucidate physical revival. In the European Middle Ages, many knightly romances and legend brought up academic fiction-theme.

Resembling similar metallic ponies in Mid-East writing, this metallic pony could take its horseman anywhere in the rest of the globe at exceptional speeds by turning a stake in its ears and thundering certain words into its ears. At best, the borders between mediaeval fiction with scholarly aspects and mediaeval science can be blurred.

Likewise, mediaeval reports often included scientific-fictional topics and element. 38 ] However, Mandeville's travels and other travelogues in his style combine actual geographic information with fictitious information, and it is therefore hard to tell which parts are scientifically fictitious or would have been seen as such in the Middle Ages.

As a result of the scholarly findings that marked the Enlightenment, several new kinds of literary works took form in Europe in the sixteenth century. In 1516, the humanistic philosopher Thomas More, titled Utopia, described a fictitious isle whose residents had brought every facet of their societies to perfection. Societys name got caught, which led to the utopian motive that later spread so widely in science fiction to describe a universe that seemed apparently imperfect, but was in the end either unreachable or pervertedly inaccurate.

Faustlegende (1587) contains an early archetype for the "crazy history of science" (and would later even be adopted as explicit science fiction in the 1956 movie "Verbotener Planet"). The" age of reason" and the broad interest in scholarly discoveries drove the emergence of fictional speculation in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, which many of the tropics of modern science fiction had foreseen.

A number of works were extended to include an imagined journey to the lunar, first in Johannes Kepler's Somnium (The Dream, 1634), which both Carl Sagan and Isaac Asimov described as the first work of science fiction. Some call Francis Godwin's The Man on the moon (1638) the first English science fiction work and Cyrano de Bergerac's comic story of the states and empires of the moon (1656).

Others proto-science fiction from the age of reason of the seventeenth and eighteenth century (in chronic order): Shakespeare's The Storm (1610-11) contains a prototypical work for the "mad history of scientists". This is Margaret Cavendish's The Descriptions of a New Worlds, Callled the Blazing-World (1666), a novel describing an alternative worid found by a young aristocrat in the Arctic.

The Voyages and Aventures of Jacques Massé (1710) by Simon Tyssot de Patots shows a doomed world. onathan Swift' s Gulliver's Travels (1726) contains a description of foreign civilizations and "weird science". The memoirs of Samuel Madden of the 20th century (1733), in which a storyteller of 1728 receives from his patron saint's angels a number of state documentation from 1997-1998, a means of action that recalls later traveling fiction.

The Ludvig Holberg Niels Klim's Underground Travels (1741) is an early example of the Hollow Earth game. This brief novel shows the archetypical "mad scientist" who experiments with progressive technologies. It' also the first part of the category of "mad scientist". Though usually associated with the gothic-horror-game, the novel introduced science-fiction topics such as the use of science for accomplishments that go beyond the framework of science at the times, and the space warrior as antagonist, which allows a look at the situation of man from an external perp.

As Aldiss argued, science fiction in general draws its convention from the novel. In The Reanimated Englishman (1826), a man who has been frostbitten in snow is reborn today. He takes up the science fiction topic of cryonic science that is customary today and at the same time illustrates Shelly's use of science as an imagination for her tales.

The Last Man, another futurist Shelley novel, is often quoted as the first real science fiction novel. The ancestors of Kalimeros: Alexander, Philipp von Makedon's son), who was described as the first originally Soviet science fiction novel and the first novel with a journey through an age.

In The Legend of the Centuries (1859), Victor Hugo writes a long poetry in two parts, somehow inspired by the scholarly theory of the nineteenth and certainly by the concept of man's advancement, which can be regarded as a dystopia/utopia fiction that can be described as the twentieth part. In a first sequence it shows the corpse of a shattered giant vessel, the greatest work of the proud and foolhardy man, who named it Leviathan, roaming in a deserts where the wind blows and the wrath of injured natures is; man, at last united and satisfied, has gone to meet the heavens in a spaceship to search for freedom and illuminate them.

There are other remarkable proto-science fiction writers and works from the early nineteenth century: Or a story of the 22nd centuries (1827), in which Cheops is resurrected by scholarly means into a politically troubled society, in which technologies have become gas-flame decorations and homes moving on tracks, etc...

The Napoleon and the Conquête of the Monde (1836), a turbulent story of a Napoleonic conquest. C. I. Defontenay's Star ou Psi de Cassiopée (1854), an Olaf Stapledon-like chronicles of a foreign state and civilisation. PSI forces receive a logic and science statement that is reached through biologic evolutions and technology advances, not something magic or miraculous.

This is the case with the scholarly books by Jules Verne and the scholarly, sociocritical books by H. G. Wells. Verne's adventures, especially Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), From the Earth to the Moon (1865) and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1869), blended bold romance adventures with cutting-edge technologies or logical extrapolation into theuture.

L. Verne called Sprague de Camp "the world's first full-time science fiction author". "Wells' tales, on the other side, use science fiction equipment to make didactical points about his company. For example, in TheTimemachine ( "The Times Machine", 1895), the plane's technological features are quickly embellished so that the writer can tell a tale that criticises the layering of British people.

The War of the Worlds (1898) does not explain Martian engineering as in a Verne tale, and the tale is solved by a delus ex machine, albeit academically explain. There is a suspense between Verne and Wells that would have existed in science fiction throughout its entirety.

There was always the issue of whether one should present real-life techniques or concentrate on personalities and concepts, as well as the issue of whether one should tell an interesting tale or make a didactical statement. But Wells and Verne had some early science fiction rivalry. Shorts and novels with topics of the phantastic imaginativeness were published in magazines in the latter nineteenth c. of which many scholarly concepts served as a stepping stone for the imaginative.

Though better known for Sherlock Holmes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle also made early science fiction, especially with the personality of Professor Challenger. udyard Kipling's early 1900s articles on the subject had him described as "the first contemporary science fiction author". 43 ] Other Bengali science fiction creators in this area included Sukumar Ray and Begum Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, who were the first to write the famous Sultana' s Dream, a well-known female science fiction work.

44 ] Another early science fiction work was Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland. Both Wells and Verne had an extended audience and mainly affected authors in America. Soon, a science fiction genre of its own flourished. Western authors found more reading by marketing to the US pen index and creating in an US styled way.

The report includes the start, the cabins, a description of the shifts and many other science-like issues. It is used by the author to give an insight into the science of the lunar life in all possible ways that the traveler would come across in this place. An insane maniac and bad guy named Black Bart tries to extort the earth with a dose of potato starch capable of destroying the entire planets by turning its water into fire.

Newsman Edward Page Mitchell would release his groundbreaking science fiction shorts in The Sun for more than a dozen years, with the exception of his first novel, Scribner' s Monthly, in 1874. Its histories covered innvisibility, quicker than journeys of lights, teleportations, time journeys, cryogenicity, mind transfers, courage, cyborgs and mechanic minds.

The second-best novel in the USA in the nineteenth century was one of the most popular works of early US science fiction: Harben's history is one of a highly developed scientific civilisation that lives under the splendor of a mechanic orbit. Twain researched topics of science in his novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court.

Twain's Yankee is taken back in history through "soul migration", "transposition of eras and bodies", and his understanding of the technique of the nineteenth cent. Posted in 1889, A Connecticut Yankee seems to be predicting the aftermath of World War I, when Europe's old notions of knightliness in the conduct of war were destroyed by new arms and touctic.

L. Frank Baum's 14 book serial (1900-1920), set in his peculiar land of Oz, included portrayals of bizarre weaponry (Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, Glinda of Oz), mechanic men (Tik-Tok of Oz), and a host of as yet unrealized technical innovations and equipment, perhaps the first literature release of portable radio communication equipment (Tik-Tok of Oz).

He has written several science fiction tales, among them "The Red One" (a tale with aliens), The Iron Heel (from London's perspective in the future) and "The Unbaralleled Invasion" (a tale of upcoming sprouting wars and ethnical cleansing). Those tales began to alter the characteristics of science fiction.

Shortly before the First World War, Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950) began to write science fiction for cellulose journals and in 1912 released his first novel Under the Moons of Mars. Throughout his entire career he has released adventurous tales, many of them science fiction. All sorts of adventures were released by the group.

In addition to the secrets of murders, horrors, fantasy and Edgar Rice Burroughs' own Tarzan, science fiction had to be appropriate. After H. G. Wells, the next great science fiction authors were Olaf Stapledon (1886-1950), whose four main works Last and First Men (1930), Odd John (1935), Star Maker (1937) and Sirius (1944) launched a host of concepts that authors have since adopted, and J.-H.

Ainé Rosny, née in Belgium, the founder of "modern" France's science fiction, is a novelist similar to H. G. Wells, who composed the classics Les Xipehuz (1887) and La Mort de la Terre (1910). In the twenties and thirties, however, the style was presented in a new style. Robert Hugh Benson has written one of the first contemporary dystopian, Lord of the World (1907).

udyard Kipling's articles on science fiction go beyond their immediate effect at the beginning of the twentieth c... Not only were the Aerial Board of Control tales and his criticism of the UK Army of a Dream very contemporary in spirit, but writers such as John W. Campbell and Robert Anson Heinlein, the latter of whom composed a novel, Starship Troopers, which contains all of The Army of a Dream's components and whose Stranger in a Strange Land was a reinterpretation of the Jungle Book, whereby the anthropomorphic baby was brought up by Martians instead of beavers.

Heinlein, the key figure in science fiction since the 1930' s, has also described himself as having been inspired by George Bernard Shaw, whose longest work Back to Methuselah (1921) was science fiction itself. Some of the evolution of science fiction in America as a self-confident style goes back to 1926, when Hugo Gernsback established the journal Amazon Storys, which dealt solely with science fictioniction.

48 ] Although science fiction journals have already been released in Sweden and Germany, Amazon Stories was the first English-language journal to exclusively do so. As he chose the variation concept of" scientifiction" to describe this beginning gender, the developmental state of the gender, its name and the term" scientifiction" are often regarded as inseparable.

Although Gernsback inspired tales with scholarly realisticism to enlighten his reader about scholarly principals, such tales divided the pages with thrilling tales with little base in the real world. Many of Gernsback's publications have been described as "gadget fiction",[49][50] about what happens when someone makes a technical invention. This and other cellulose journals with great and increasing popularity did not regard such scholarly tales as serious but as sensational.

Nevertheless, a journal dedicated exclusively to science fiction was a great impulse for the general public's perception of the history of scholarly speculation. And yet, a journal dedicated exclusively to science fiction was a great source of inspiration. Amazon tales competes with several other pulps journals, among them Weird Tales (which mainly released phantasy stories), Astounding Tales and Wonder Tales, during the 1930'. In the Gernsback period, science fiction fandom was created through the media of the "Letters to the Editor" crevices of Amazon and its rivals.

While in August 1928 Amazonian tales Skylark of Space and Armageddon released 2419 A.D., Weird Tales released Edmond Hamilton's Crashing Suns, all of which marked the genesis of the Cosmicoper. In Fritz Lang's film Méropolis ( "Metropolis", 1927), in which the first filmed manoid humanoids were shown, and the Italian Futurists' passion for machinery bear witness to the hope and fear of the inter-war age.

Métropoli was an exceptionally popular movie and its art-deco based aesthetics became for some considerable period the leading aesthetics of science fiction pulp. Authors tried to react to the new life after the First War. During the 1920' and 1930', authors who had nothing to do with science fiction explored new ways of narrating a tale and dealing with new ways, times, spaces and experiences in narrow-mindedness.

Posthumous publications by Franz Kafka, who passed away in 1924, and works by modernistic authors such as James Joyce, T. S. Eliot, Virginia Woolf and others showed histories in which we could expand, contract, loop and otherwise distort our times and our identities. Whilst this work was not related to science fiction as a discipline, it dealt with the effects of modernism (technology, science and change) on people's life, and years later, during the New Wave movements, some modernistic literature technologies came into science fiction.

Karel ?apek's play The Makropulos Affair, R.U.R., The Life of the Insects and the novel War with the Newts were modernistic writings that created important science fiction-themes. Simultaneously, a long history of science fiction narratives began to emerge, dealing with a discordance between the sensed metaphysical condition and the full manifestation of man's desires: the dystopic novel.

The science fiction components of these works have for some period of filming been ignored by major literature reviewers, even though they are much more to blame for the science fiction scene than the modernist world. Genuinely utopic script, many of them by Wells, has also strongly affected science fiction, starting with Hugo Gernsback's Ralph 124C 41+.

Huxley bridges the gulf between the literature and science fiction worlds with Brave New Welt (1932), an ironical portrayal of a steady and seemingly fortunate community constructed by man's command of genetics. John W. Campbell became publisher of Astounding Science Fiction in the 1930', and a large number of new authors appeared in New York City in a group of science fiction enthusiasts (many of them soon became professionals ) known as Futurians, including Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith Merril and others.

51 ] Other important authors at that time were Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke and A. E. van Vogt. Campbell's term at Astounding is regarded as the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, marked by tough science fiction tales that celebrate academic achievements and progres. This took until post-war technology advancements, new periodicals like Galaxy under H.L. Gold and later Pohl as publisher, and a new breed of writer began to write outside Campbell-story.

The Dispossessed:An Ambiguous Ultopia, much of Kurt Vonnegut's writings and many other works of later science fiction perpetuate this dialog between the utopian and the dystopian. Throughout the Second World War, US army designers were studying science fiction for concepts. In the meantime, the Germans had devised airborne missiles known as V2s and V2s, reminding us of the "rocket ships" that are ubiquitous in pulpscience fiction and predict astronautics.

"Deadline", a Cleve Cartmill novel about a fictitious nuclear bombing operation, brought the FBI to the Astounding Science Fiction office. The fall of the nuclear weapon in 1945 made science fiction respectful. When the horrors took place in Hiroshima, everyone could see that science fiction authors were not only daydreamers and madmen, and that many of the motives of this literary group were now constantly in the newsreads.

54 ] With the history of a flown down of saucers in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947, science fiction had become contemporary music. In the 1940' and 1950' the Golden Age of Science Fiction is often called. Science fiction began to be considered a serious fiction with the appearance of a sophisticated publisher, John W. Campbell, Jr., on Astounding Science Fiction, and the release of tales and fiction by authors such as Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke and Robert A. Heinlein.

He exerted an exceptional impact on the work of his team of authors and thus shaped the course of science fiction. "Under Campbell's leadership, the years 1938-1950 would become known as the "Golden Age of Science Fiction"[48], Asimov pointing out that the concept "Golden Age" was used more casually to relate to other eras in the story of science fiction.

Campbell's instructions for his authors contained his renowned dictum: "Write me a creation that thinks as well as a man, or better than a man, but not as a man. "He emphasised a higher level of literacy than the previous authors, paying particular heed to the development of the group of young authors who feel connected to him.

Risks in the field of science fiction were also part of the seriousness. However, the cover of magazines about insect eye monitors and sparsely dressed girls kept the picture of a spectacular style that only appeals to young people. One interesting note on Campbell's regimes is his contributions to the ascent of L. Ron Hubbard's Scientology.

He was regarded as a highly esteemed science fiction author and protege of Campbell, who wrote Hubbard's first article on Dianetics and his new faith. While Campbell's rule as publisher of Astounding advanced, Campbell paid more interest to Hubbard's idea and wrote Dianetics editorial. Although Astounding still had a loyant fan base, people turned to other journals to find science fiction tales.

Featuring the new sources of the Golden Age authors, progress in visual impact and the public's wish for footage dealt with by the progress of science fiction cinema at the times, all the necessary resources were available to produce significant works of science fiction work. Thus, in the 1950' s the science fiction movie came into its own, movies like Destination Moon, Them!

Much of these films are inspired by Campbell's authors. Thing from Another World was taken from a Campbell storyline, Them and Invasion of the Body Snatchers is inspired by Jack Finney novel, Destination Moon is a Heinlein novel and The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms was a Ray Bradbury comic.

Simultaneously, science fiction began to appear on a new media - TV. The Quatermass experiment was shown on UK TV in 1953, the first major science fiction show, although it can also be described as terrible. In the United States, science fiction protagonists such as Captain Video, Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers were shown, programmes that were more like pre-Campbellian science fiction.

In search of more free speech, the authors began to post their contributions in other journals, among them The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, If magazin, a re-surrected Amazon Stories and above all Galaxy. Among the publishers H.L. Gold and then Frederik Pohl, Galaxy emphasized a more literary science fiction based on the deeper L-literature.

There was less persistent on scholarly reasonability than Campbell's astounding. Galaxy's ascent marked the end of Golden Age science fiction, although most Golden Age authors were able to adjust to the changes in the universe and continue working. Asimov and some others began to almost entirely focus on scholarly facts.

The former renounces any feeling of place and place; there is only one sound standing between the desire to survive and the drive to remain silent and forget. The only other great author who used The Unnamable as his name was H. P. Lovecraft. The latter deals with period and the paradox of cause and effect.

Beckett's impact on intelligence - as well as the general impact of existenceism and the judicial struggles for the publication of works that were then classed as arcane science fiction, especially in Britain. The author William S. Burroughs (1914-1997) eventually combined science fiction with the latest post-modern literary tendencies. Science fiction language fused with the post-modern experimentation in a beat-generational form.

Kingsley Amis New Maps of Hell, a 1960 book by the English author, is a literature story and exploration of the area of science fiction. Such serious attentiveness from a major, accepted author has done much good for the fame of science fiction. A further important landmark was the 1965 release of Frank Herbert's Düne, a thick, rich and detailled work of scheming in a prospective universe, peculiar and mystic religions and the ecosystems of the arracis desertsite.

The other was the creation of Roger Zelazny's work, whose books such as Lord of Light and his celebrated The Chronicles of Amber showed that the boundaries between science fiction, imagination, religious and societal commentaries can be very subtle. In 1965, Jean-Luc Godard's Alphaville also used the media of dystopic and apocalyptic science fiction to investigate speech and the world.

The 1960s British writer-generations, called "The New Wave", experimented with various types of science fiction[39] that expanded the medium towards the surrealist, psychodrama and majorstream. New Wave authors also thought they were based on the heritage of the New Wave art scene in France.

Although the New Wave was largely a UK move, there were at the same times simultaneous trends in US science fiction. Harlan Ellison's Dangerous Visions illustrates the relationship between New Wave in Britain and science fiction in an early book, in which both US and UK science fiction authors wrote tales that crossed the limits of what was accepted in a science fiction journal.

Asimov, who wrote an introductory essay to the manuscript, described it as the Second Revolutions, after the first revolutions that brought about the Golden Age. And they also looked for controversies on topics that older science fiction authors had averted. It was the first year that the sex that Kingsley Amis had lamented was almost ignored by authors such as Samuel R. Delany, Ursula K. Le Guin, Norman Spinrad and Theodore Sturgeon.

When Asimov remarked that the Second Revolution was far less clear than the First Revolution, this was due to the evolution of the manuscript, which brought older histories to the fore. However, a number of Golden Age authors altered their styles as the New Wave hits. He has shifted from his early Campusbellian Future History tales to adventurous, sexual open works of fiction, especially Stranger in a Strange Land and The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress.

The changes in the science fiction scene inspired science fiction film. Philip K. Dick researched the psychic metaphysic in a range of books and histories that seldom seemed to depend on their scientific fictionuality. Guin, Dick and others like her were more associated with the idea of science fiction than with the New Wave.

The dissemination of cyber punk in other parts of the market of idea has shaped modern science fiction. It is no longer a ghettoised strain within science fiction, but an integrated part of the realm whose interaction with other parts was the main topic of science fiction at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

This has also resulted in other breakthroughs, such as steampunk (a sub-genre of science fiction and imagination that includes tech and esthetic design influenced by 19 th centrury industial steams ) and Dieselpunk (that links the esthetics of diesel-based technologies from the inter-war era to the 1950' with retrofuturistic tech and post-modern sensibility).

Cyber punk's dependence on science fiction has intensified. Cosmic operatic authors have authored works with cyber punk themes, among them David Brin's "Kiln People" and Ken MacLeod's "Fall Revolution" film. The amalgamation of the two different strands of science fiction in the 1980' has created an extrapolatory literary work that stands in opposition to the technology histories that have been narrated in the present.

For Clute, science fiction around the beginning of the twenty-first century can be comprehended in two ways: "and as a set of prominent lyrics that showed us the important future that has unfolded in these years.....

or]..... indecipherably of the universe in those years..... deadly undistinguishable from the universe it tried to sketch. "First, A Brief Literary Story of Science Fiction." Sci-fi: Story, science, vision. Die Welt der Science Fiction, 1926-1976: the story of a subculture. "The Encyclopédie de l'utopie, de la science fiction et des voyages extraordinaires (1972).

Fifth Gibbs, Laura. Encyclopaedia for epics of ancient India. The new critical idiom of science fiction. Gunn, James E.: "The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", editor: The novel is called "Proto-Science-Fiction" by Gunn. Kryonics and bionics as "primitive weapons in the war against time". Magazine for Evolution and Technology.

Folk, myth and legend: a global view. Science fiction. Encyclopaedia of science fiction. Science Fiction. The Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Writer Story - Ki-pling Sudyard. writershistory.com. Clifford D. Simak's Pastoral Science Fiction. This is Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. Nightfall and other tales. This is Galaxy Science Fiction, pp. 142-150.

"Fiction, 1950-1963." A Routledge Science Fiction Guide. "This is a brief history of female science fiction writers." From Asimov on science fiction. Sci-fi manual, reworked. Post-1900 science fiction. Mediaeval science fiction. Cambridge Company to Science Fiction. An accompanist of science fiction. An encyclopaedia of science fiction. Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction:

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