Literature Proposal SampleSuggested Literature Example
Development of a research proposal - sample suggestions
Have a look at the following sample research suggestions. When examining each individual item of the proposal, consider how it is described and described by the scientist, what it contains, the order in which it is divided and how it is com-bined. Consider also what is omitted and/or which new items are contained that were not previously taught in school.
Finally, you should consider how the scientist wrote the proposal with the public in view and what aspects of the proposal aim to convince this public. While you are examining the suggestions, choose those that are in your area of expertise AND those that are of interest to you. Examination of sample suggestions. It will help you fill in your Reflection Journal record where you will start making some choices about what you thought was real, what you liked, or what you did NOT do in your own suggestion.
NPPs generate more than 20 per cent of the amount of electric current consumed in the United States[Murray, 1989]. Unfortunately, atomic cleavage, the method of generating this large amount of fuel, generates considerable quantities of highly-active wastes. Over 30,000 tonnes of atomic wastes have been generated from American trade chemical reactions and from highly active wastes such as U and plutonium[Roush, 1995].
Due to the structure of this type of refuse, some of our generating units will be obliged to close down. In order to prevent the loss of an important sources of heat, a secure and economic place to store this type of refuse is necessary. A literature survey of whether Yucca Mountain is an appropriate site for a final storage site for radioactive wastes is proposed in this work.
It discusses the economic and ecological issues of a domestic repository. The proposal contains my information collection methodologies, a timetable for the completion of the audit and my skills. The Department of Energy (DOE) must receive waste atomic fuels from commercially owned facilities for final disposal on January 1, 1998[Clark, 1997].
But the DOE is indecisive about where to go with this highly active wastes. The Yucca Mountain, situated in Nevada, is a suggested location. Yucca Mountain final storage facility has many issues. Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory do not agree on the long-term security of the high-ranking Nevada landfill.
Charles Bowman, a Los Alamos scientist, in 1994 devised a hypothesis that years of storage of wastes in the mountains could indeed trigger and detonate a fierce magnetic resonance network, similar to an nuke[Taubes, 1995]. Excitement generated by the theories indicates that scientists have not investigated all sides of the security problem with regard to potentially dangerous conditions at Yucca Mountains.
Bowman's hypothesis that Yucca Mountain could burst is founded on the notion that enough rubbish is distributed in the rocks to form a crucial weight. Subterranean reactions could then produce large quantities of power in fractions of a second, which would lead to an atomic bomb explup. Such a core detonation would release large quantities of radiation into the atmosphere and groundwater.
A further security problem is the potential for a volcano to erupt in Yucca Mountain. In order for the isotope to decompose to a normal level, the long-term repository for atomic wastes must stay solid for at least 10,000 years[Clark, 1997]. At least a doze of young volcanos exist within a 40 kilometre radius of the planned Yucca Mountain landfill[Weiss, 1996].
Yucca Mountain's close vicinity to these volcanos allows a volcano to erupt through the final storage site for burned off fuels. My proposal is to check the available literature on the use of yucca mountain as a possible final storage site for burned off fuels. I shall be achieving the following two objectives in this report:
elucidate the requirements for an appropriate disposal site for high-level nuclear wastes and ( ) establish whether Yucca Mountain fulfils these requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) states that a final storage facility for high-level nuclear energy must fulfil several requirements, among them security, site and economic efficiency[Roush, 1995]. Security does not only include the effect of the final storage facility on the local population, but also on the population along the transport route to the site.
A landfill cannot be situated in a densely populated area or near a groundwater source. As one of the most important factor in the determination of the lifetime of a potential final disposal site is how long the trash cans stay intact, the landfill must be in a arid environment to remove the humidity that cans of trash can cause to be corroded.
The Department of Energy (DOE) has currently invested more than $1.7 billion in the Yucca Mountain project[Taubes, 1995]. That is why there is great urgency to choose Yucca Mountain as a final storage site; otherwise this would have been a wastage. How economic is it, for example, to move nuclear wastes across several countries to a central location?
Having explained the criterions, I will judge how well Yucca Mountain fulfils these criterions. Rather, I will be discussing the quality of how well Yucca Mountain fulfils each one. There are times when there is a dispute among professionals about how well yucca mountain fulfils a certain condition. Only Yucca Mountain is taken into account as a possible location in this evaluation.
Though many locations in the United States could fulfill the DOE's establish criterions, I will only consider Yucca Mountain, as the DOE only considers Yucca Mountain[Taube, 1995]. Interest in the Yucca Mountain site's atomic power generation has increased due to January 1, 1998, the cut-off date for the DOE.
As a result of this interest, several magazine essays and lectures have been published in which the possibilities of Yucca Mountain being a final storage site for burned off fuels in the near term are discussed. Those items and those ledgers on the hazards of atomic wastes should give me enough information to conclude my investigation. My first objective is to clarify the suitability of a final storage site for radioactive wastes.
So what happens if the bins are corroded and do not last as long as foreseen? Do you think the environment will contain the wastes? In order to reach this aim, I will base myself on "Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for Yucca Mountain"[Clark, 1997], the DOE Yucca Mountain Homepage and the Understanding Radioactive Waste[Murray, 1989].
Yucca Mountain is a second aim of my literature research to assess according to these criterions. In order to achieve this aim, I will base myself on Clark's paper and the Blowup at Yucca Mountain[Taubes, 1995]. As the main public for my suggested research subject is the student engineer and perhaps not acquainted with the story of atomic wastes, I will give a backdrop to the previous method of wastage.
Those in the atomic sector who are familiar with the industrial garbage issue may be a subsidiary group. In this section, I present my timetable, my expenses and my skills for carrying out the research I propose. As I already have literature on yucca mountain as a landfill, I will spend most of my free space searching the literature to find important results and present them to the public.
Timetable for the conclusion of the literature search. Since all my resources are available through the Wisconsin Univeristy librarianship system, there are no significant costs associated with conducting this check, unless you consider the amount of fees for the maintenance of your college archives. I' m a senor in the Department of Technical and Physical Sciences at the Universit of Wisconsin in Madison with a focus on atomic technology and physic.
I' ve attended several training sessions in the fields of atomic wastes, economy and environment. and I believe that these training sessions will help me to prepare for the suggested revision. Over 30,000 tonnes of atomic wastes have been generated from American trade chemical plants and from highly radioactive wastes such as U and plutonium[Roush, 1995].
The paper suggested that the feasibility of using Yucca Mountain as a possible final storage site for this burned off atomic energy be investigated. Suggested research will meet the following objectives: to ( ) describe the necessary criterions for an appropriate final disposal site for high-level waste, and (2) establish whether Yucca Mountain has complied.
Clark, Raymond L., "Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain", Proceedings of the 1997 Waste Management Conference (Washington, D.C. : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Evaluation of the risks of radioactive waste", Wissenschaft, Volume 274, (November 1996), pp. 913-914. Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989).
Roush, W., "Can nuclear waste keep Yucca Mountain dry and safe? Taubes, G., "Blowup at Yucca Mountain", Science, Vol. 268, (June 1995), p. 1836-1839. Catastrophic seismic events are occurring worldwide with little or no forewarning. Several of these quakes are killing several hundred men. It would be possible to save many human life if the time, magnitude and location of these quakes could be foreseen.
In this paper an overview is given of how the surveillance of earthquake progenitors can help in the short-term forecasting of these. This proposal will debate the physics behind the surveillance of three joint predecessors and assess how precise each surveillance is in forecasting these. This proposal includes my information collection methodologies, a timetable for the completion of the audit and my skills.
Seismic events started fifty or more fire points across the town. Fire ravaged a 5 sq. km section in the centre of the city[Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993]. More devastating was the Kwanto quake in Japan, which on September 1, 1923 ravaged the towns of Yokohama and Tokyo[Hodgson, 1993].
More than 50 per cent of Yokohama's structures were destroyed[Bolt, 1993], and up to 208 firebreaks started and started in the city[Hodgson, 1964]. By the time the catastrophe was over, 33,000 were killed[Bolt, 1993]. Tokyo suffered less losses from the quake, but the fire was more disastrous.
The fire left 68,000 bodies and 1 million homeless[Bolt, 1993]. Two of the most celebrated and catastrophic quakes of the 20th and 20th centuries were the San Francisco 1906 and Kwantoquakes. Those quakes hit without prior notice and with catastrophic consequences. It would be possible, if it were possible to predict seismic events, to remove persons from structures, footbridges and viaducts, where most casualties have occurred.
A number of seismic events have been successfully foreseen. During 1970, the Liaoning province was set in sights by a group of researchers from China as a site with the capacity for a major cataclysm. They believed that there would be an earthquake in 1974 or 1975. There was an eartquake alarm on 20 December 1974. The Liaoning province was shaken by 8 quakes, but further observations showed that a major quake was imminent[Mileti and others, 1981].
The Chinese warned of an Haicheng quake within 24 hrs[Bolt, 1993] on February 4, 1975. The town of Haicheng was hit by three quakes. The Chinese have forecasted more than ten quakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 with the help of previous generations of geophysics[Meyer, 1977]. The Chinese, for example, have forecast an 6-strength quake.
The 9th session took place on 19 May 1976 in Yunnan at 97-minute intervals[Bolt, 1993]. In spite of these achievements, the Chinese could not have predicted the Tangshan quake of July 27, 1976, which claimed 250,000 lives and wounded another 500,000[Bolt, 1988]. That quake was not entirely out of the blue, but the Chinese thought it was a few years away.
Others were foretold, but the forecasts were not accurate enough to give warning. In 1983, for example, a young gemophysicist forecast that an 8 gauge seismic event would hit Mexico City within four years[Deshpande, 1987]. In two years, an 8 Mexico City quake shook Mexico City.
As the forecast was not more accurate, there was no alarm and the quake surprised the Mexican city' s inhabitants. In August 1976, for example, an seismic alarm was sounded near Hong Kong[Bolt, 1988]. In the course of the alarm, sleepers stayed outside for two-month. There was no quake.
My suggestion is to check the available literature on how to use the previous models of geophysics for short-term seismic prediction. The three objectives I will accomplish in this report are as follows: declare three generally supervised pioneers in geophysics: soil elevation and slope, increase in the emission of radons and changes in the electric resistance of rock; debate how each of these pioneers is used for short-term seismic design.
Earthquake precursor changes in the state of the planet's physics. Besides the surveillance of earthquake progenitors, there are other earthquake forecasting techniques - in particular the analysis of statistics on previous one. However, the analysis of statistics on previous seismic events is only a long-term forecasting technique[Bolt, 1993].
My report will be discussing three joint pioneers in geophysics: soil elevation and slope, increase in the emission of radons and changes in the electric resistance of rock. Seismic events take place in five phases, as flexible elongation builds up in the soil, followed by the formation of fissures in the rock and the inflow of moisture into these fissures.
My report will explain how the three previous generations of geophysics related to the five phases of an quake and how well this relationship can be used to anticipate the imminent failure. The recent quakes in California and Japan have generated great interest in predicting seismic events.
Because of this great interest, many volumes and magazines were published about seismic and seismic forecasting. Those ledgers and essays should give me enough information to be able to post my reviews. Why, for example, does the electric resistance of rock drop before an imminent seismic event? Or what does a surge in the emission of radons tell us about the probability of a major quake in the world?
My second research objective is to show what happens to each of these forerunners during the five phases of an easter. In order to reach these two objectives, I will base myself on three volumes that give an outline of the seismic forecast: Seismic [Bolt, 1988], seismic and geological discovery[Bolt, 1993], and seismic and earthworks[Hodgson, 1964].
The third main objective of the literature search is to ensure the precision of the surveillance of each individual forerunner. I mean by precision, how well the technique works in forecasting the duration, location and magnitude of an earthquake. There will not be much statistic about the earthquake prediction in this debate, as there are currently simply not enough sufficiently validated forecasts to allow this type of statistic to be validated.
Earthquake experiment[Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993] and earthquake and geological discovery[Bolt, 1993]. Since the main readership for my suggested literature research are student engineers who are probably not acquainted with the theory behind seismic events, I will have to give chosen backgrounds from my resources. Those student engineers already know that seismic events are disastrous.
You also know that if quakes could be foretold, humans would be able to get ready for them and save deaths. They may not, however, be familiar with the different ways of forecasting seismic events. It is my intention to educate these undergraduates about three ways to predict seismic events. Minor audiences for the reviews would be non-technical writers who either reside in earthquake-prone areas or are affected by financial losses from seismic events.
The literature survey I propose will allow this group an unprejudiced debate on three seismic-predictors. These discussions, which draw much from the survey sections Seismic, Animal and Human[Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake[Meyer, 1977], will relativize how exact or imprecise these techniques are and what obstacles are faced by engineering professionals trying to forecast them.
In this section, I present my timetable, my expenses and my skills for carrying out the research I propose. This research proposal will culminate in a technical progress review which will be finalised by 6 December 1995. As I already have several seismic forecasting resources, I will spend most of my free day looking through the information, identifying the main results and presenting them to the public.
Timetable for the conclusion of the literature search. Since I can obtain all my literature research resources from the archive, there are no significant expenses for this literature research. There will be low fees for copy of the article, print of the reviews and coil-bound reviews.
In my opinion, these classes and my practical experiences will help me to assimilate the suggested literature survey. Bolt, Bruce A., earthquake (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988). Bolt, Bruce A., earthquake and geological discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993). Deshpande, Prof. B. G., Earthquake, Animals and Humans (Pune, India:
Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Earthquakes (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado : Westview Press, 1993).