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Headquartered in France, Hachette Livre is a subsidiary of the French media company Lagardère. When you ask yourself what the biggest publishers are, then you have covered this list. If you decide to self-publish, we have compiled a list of publishing service providers that are popular with independent authors. ("after a district in Edinburgh where the company is based). The Big Six publishing house offers its advice for prospective authors.

57 largest book publishers in the world, 2015

This year' s rankings of the world's biggest publishing houses reflect the increasing complexities of publishing companies. There are two publishing houses in China that have reached the top 10 for 2014; it is possible that they would have made the top 10 sooner if information had been available. This year Phoenix Publishing and Media Company is the 6th biggest publishing company with a turnover of 2.84 billion US dollars, an 16% rise over 2013, while the China South Publishing & Media Group is in 7th place with a turnover of 2.58 billion US dollars and an 31% upturn.

A total of four publishing houses in China qualify for the 2014 rankings because they have met the requirements for 200 million dollars in turnover and the willingness and ability to record their number. Greater pecuniary clarity for the publishing giant in China is in line with their aim of becoming a much more important player in the market.

Part of this goal was China's representation at this year's BookExpo America with 25,000 square metres of exhibition area and more than 500 publishing directors and writers. Besides the huge exhibition, China's publishing managers took part in a series of panel discussions, including Phoenix Chairman Xiaoping Wu.

He stated that Phoenix acquired $80 million from the children's publishing division of Publications ltd. in the sommer of 2014. The Lincolnwood, Illinois-based PIL was just one of the steps in establishing children's publishers around the year. Phoenix's past global endeavours include an alliance with Hachette Livre in 2009 and the opening of an agency in the UK in 2012.

It has recently opened a shareholding in New York. Whilst Phoenix Publishing and China South shaken the top 10 rankings for 2014, the top 4 publishing houses are all well-known brands (although Reed Elsevier has renamed itself Relx Group) and specialise in the educational and specialist market.

To keep up with this trend, the capacity of specialist and education publishing houses is due to a mixture of acquisition and the development of information services, the revenues of which are used in the rankings. The sales of the top 10 publishing houses together represented 54% of the total sales of the 57 companies, compared to 53% in 2013.

Certainly, the acquisition will have an effect on next year's rankings. HarperCollins's August 1, 2014, Harlequin acquisition is not ranked, as HC's revenues are from the year ended June 30, 2014. Harlequin, which was number 42 in 2013, has been ruled out in the last rankings since it became part of HC last year.

In 2014 Harlequin will increase HC revenues by up to $400 million. The Scholastic Group will be sold to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in April, bringing the two US companies together in order to increase their revenues. In 2014, the technological group achieved a turnover of 249 million US dollars when the enterprise achieved a turnover of 1.82 billion US dollars; HMH's turnover of 1.37 billion US dollars in 2014 was almost at the previous year's level.

However, the largest transaction that affected the rankings was the Macmillan Science and Education and Springer Science and Business Media tie. As a result of this fusion, which was implemented in May 2015, the new Springer Nature was formed, 53% of which is owned by Holtzbrinck (parent of the former Macmillan Science and Education).

Macmillan's commercial and U.S. collegiate publishing businesses were not consolidated. A further agreement involving two of Brazil's biggest publishing houses was made public in June this year when Abril Educacao signed an agreement to acquire Editora Saraiva, the publishing businesses of the Saraiva Group. This agreement covers the entire Saraiva education and publishing businesses, as well as the Benvirá trading group.

A last influencing force in the 2014 rankings was the most fluctuating foreign exchange markets in recent years. Had the conversion been carried out in 2014, some companies, such as Relx, Hachette Livre and Simon & Schuster, would have been upgraded by one notch.

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