Constitution TranslationTranslation of the Constitution
Art. 11 US Constitution
United States jurisdiction shall not be interpreted as extending to disputes brought or pursued by citizens of another state or by citizens or entities of a foreign state against any of the United States. On March 4, 1794, the Third Congress of the United States suggested the 11th modification of the United States Constitution and proclaimed it to have been passed by the legislators of three quarters of the states in a presidential dispatch to Congress on January 8, 1798.
North Carolina, 7 February 1795; New York, 27 March 1794; Rhode Island, 31 March 1794; Connecticut, 8 May 1794; New Hampshire, 16 June 1794; Massachusetts, 26 June 1794; Vermont, between 9 October 1794 and 9 November 1794; Virginia, 18 November 1794; Georgia, 29 November 1794; Kentucky, 7 December 1794; Maryland, 26 December 1794; Delaware, 23 January 1795.
South Carolina thereafter approved the change on December 4, 1797.
It is often celebrated as a miracle of conciseness and clearness. What about the Constitution itself? How does every item, every section say? It is like a constitutional review, articles for articles, change for change. It should not be seen as a replacement for the Constitution, but rather as a student guidebook.
Its preamble has no legal effect, but determines the "why" of the Constitution. The Framers' desire to reform the current regime (to be "more perfect" than the confederation's articles) to make sure it would be fair and protected its people from external riots and attacks.
The first of the three arms of power, the legislature, is defined in Art. 1. Paragraph 1 specifies the name of the legislature to be the Congress, a two chamber or two-part organ. Part 2 is defining the Congress of Representatives, known as the lower chamber of Congress. He lays down some minimal conditions, such as an 25 year old retirement pension, and stipulates that the electorate itself elects the members for two years at a time.
Part 3 defined the top chamber of Congress, the Senate. Here too, some minimal conditions are laid down, such as an 30 year old threshold. The vice-president who chairs the Senate (called the president of the Senate) is introduced in this section; the vice-president votes only in the event of a tied ballot.
Paragraph 4 states that each state may determine its own method of election of Congress members and that Congress must convene at least once a year. Paragraph 5 states that Congress must have a minimal number of members present to convene and that it may impose penalties on members who do not attend.
Part 6 stipulates that members of Congress shall be remunerated, that they may not be held during the trip to and from Congress, that they may not serve in any other position in the administration during the Congress. The draft laws must be passed by both Congress buildings in exactly the same way. Invoices passing both buildings are sent to the president.
If there is a vote, the bill is sent back to Congress, and if both institutions approve it by a two-thirds vote, the bill becomes the bill for the president's axe. There' a few more presidential choices. This happens when Congress posts the bill to the President and then adjourns it.
Failure by the president to do so within 10 working day will invalidate the Act. Chapter 8 enumerates the Congress' special authority, which includes the authority to build and operate an armed forces and navies, to set up postal services, to set up tribunals, to govern trade between states, to wage wars and to procure funds.
Part 9 sets certain boundaries for Congress. There is no legislation that can give priority to one state over another; no funds can be taken out of the vault except by a properly adopted legislation, and no noble titles, such as prince or marquis, will ever be determined by the state. You can' t make their own living or wage a war, or do most of the other things forbidden Congress in chapter 9.
The second of the three arms of governance, the executive, is defined in Art. 2. Part 1 defines the term of the President and the Vice-President and their term of service to four years. Elections are held by the electoral college, with each State having one voice for each member of Congress.
Initially, the president was the one with the most voices and the vice president was the one with the second highest, but this will be amended later. President must also be a native of the United States. And the president receives a wage that cannot vary while in position.
Sect. 2 gives the president some important authority. It concludes contracts with other countries and selects many magistrates and other members of the administration (all with the consent of the Senate). Part 3 sets out the President's duties: to make a speech on the situation of the trade unions, to make proposals to Congress, to act as President by welcoming embassies and other leaders, and to ensure that the United States' legislation is respected.
Sect. 4 briefly reviews the presidential dismissal, known as the indictment. The last of the three arms of power, the judiciary, is defined in Art. 3. Chapter 1 creates the Supreme Courthouse, the highest tribunal in the United States. This also lays down the conditions for both the Supreme and Lower Courts: that they should continue to function as long as they "behave well", which usually means for the rest of their lives (no judge and few have ever been indicted).
Paragraph 2 specifies the types of cases that may be tried by the Supreme Judicial Council, which cases the Supreme Tribunal may examine first (the so-called initial jurisdiction), and that all other cases that may be tried by the Supreme Tribunal shall be dealt with by appeals. They also guarantee legal proceedings before the penal courts. The fourth rule relates to States.
Paragraph 1 requires all states to comply with the law of all other states; this will ensure, for example, that a Florida spouse is also deemed by Arizona to be a spouse or that someone sentenced in Virginia for a felony is deemed by Wyoming to be at fault. Part 2 assures that nationals of one state are equal and fair to all other states.
Part 4 provides for a type of reublican rule (which in this case is equivalent to "representative democracy" and both are against a monarchic or noble system - the state gets its authority from the nation, not from a sovereign or noble) and assures that the German authorities are protecting the states from invasions and uprisings.
The provisions of Art. 5 shall regulate the manner in which the Constitution is amended. Art. 6 is about the United States itself. Firstly, it ensures that, under the Constitution, the United States will take over all debt and agreements that the United States has incurred under the articles of the Confederation. The United States Constitution and all the United States' acts and agreements, in order to be the highest act of the state.
After all, all United States and American officials must take an oath of loyalty to the United States and the Constitution when they take up their duties. Of the 13 states in the United States, nine had to approve the Constitution before it would enter into force formally.
All the first ten changes to the Constitution were adopted at the same date and are jointly known as the Bill of Rights. 1 ) The amendment safeguards the right of the nation to practise faith, to talk free, to gather (meet), to turn to the authorities (petition) and to be public.
Second amendment safeguards the right to own weapons. It is debated whether this is a right that safeguards the state or a right that safeguards the individual. This 3rd amendment ensures that the Armed Forces cannot compel home owners to give them lodging and food. No. 4 amendment will protect inappropriately from the goverment taking possessions, documents or persons, without a legal authorization on the basis of likely cause (good reason).
Part 5 of the amendment is to protect you from being considered guilty of a felony unless you are correctly accused that you cannot be tried twice for the same felony, that you do not have to be compelled to witness against yourself, and from possessions taken without just redress. There are also safeguards for due procedure.
This sixth amendment ensures a quick process, an unbiased panel that the defendant can face witness against them, and that the defendant must have a solicitor. This seventh amendment ensures a grand jury case in German plaintiffs' lawsuits. As a rule, these types of cases are no longer being tried in Swiss courts.
Constitutional amendment 8 ensures that the penalties are just and not atrocious and that no exceptionally high penalties are imposed. No. The ninth amendment is just a message that other permissions can coexist with the ones on the list, and just because they are not on the list doesn't mean they can be infringe.
It is the tenth amendment that is the object of discussion, but in essence it says that any authority that is not given to the German Constitution is owned by the states or the population. Amendment 11 clarifies the Supreme Court's initial competence to bring an action against a State by a national of another State.
This twelfth amendment will redefine how the President and Vice-President are elected by the electoral college so that the two posts are co-operative and not the first and second highest cast. She also makes sure that anyone who becomes vice president can be elected president. And the thirteenth amendment eliminated the practice of slave labor throughout the United States.
By means of the Fourteenth Amendment, it was guaranteed that all nationals of all states enjoy the right not only at national but also at state as well. She made sure that the United States would not repay the rebel states' debt. This 15th change makes sure that the event cannot be used as a tuning criterion.
Under the Sixteenth Amendment, the United States is authorized to levy personal taxes without consideration for the populations of the States. Twelveteenth Amendment postponed the election of state legislators to the states' group. Amendment 18 eliminated the sales or production of alcoholic beverages in the United States.
The change was later cancelled (deleted). No. The nineteenth constitutional addition makes sure that sex cannot be used as a vote criterion. On the twentieth change, new starting points were introduced for the names of Congress and the President and explained how the fatalities of the President would be treated before the oath was taken. and the 21st revised the eighteenth.
This 22nd amendment imposed a ceiling on the number of possible president ballots - two four-year periods of office. There is an exemption for a vice-president who takes over the presidency after the president's or his dismissal and sets the president's ten-year maxim. Amendment gives the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.) the right to three voters in the upcoming president's election.
This amendment 24 made sure that no taxes could be levied to approve any of these. Its twenty-fiveth Amendment further elucidates the successor to the Presidency and lays down regulations for a President who is no longer able to carry out his tasks during his term of mandate. This 26th amendment makes sure that anyone over 18 years of age can choose.
According to the Twenty-seventh Amendment, any legislation that increases the remuneration of the legislature can only come into force after an electoral term.