British Poetry BooksPoetry Books
See US literary works, Australia literary works, Canada literary works, English literary works, New Zealand literary works and Latin Africa literary works for literary works that have been published by Englishspeaking people elsewhere. In 1476 William Caxton's Presse was founded, only nine years before the beginning of Henry VII's rule. Caxton's performance promoted all types of typing and also affected the standardisation of the British-speaking world.
Tudor's early years, especially the rule of Henry VIII, were characterized by a rupture with the Roman Catholic Church and a strengthening of the feudal bonds that led to an enormous expansion of the monarchy's powers. In addition, closer links were established with the mainland, strengthening England's contact with Renaissance music.
The humanism became the most important power in the English literature and intellect both in the narrower meaning - the studies and the copying of the classical latins - and in the broader meaning - the confirmation of the worldly, but also the beyond interests of the population. One of the most fertile epochs in literature came about during the rule of Elisabeth I (1558-1603).
Elizabethan activity and literary activity mirrored a new form of nationality that was also evident in the works of chronists (John Stow, Raphael Holinshed and others), writers and interpreters, and even politicians and religions. Numerous new styles, topics and concepts have been introduced into British literary life. Poetry in Italy, in particular the sonet, became role model for British writers.
Wyatt was the most prolific sonneur among the early Tudor writers and, together with Henry Howard, the Earl of Surrey, was a groundbreaking figure. Tottel's Miscellany (1557) was the first and most beloved of many compilations of experiential poetry by various, often anonymised, hands. Often, it was the first of many compilations. One of the goals shared by these writers was to make English as adaptable and poetry-like as Italy.
A Mirror for Magistrates (1559) was an ambition ed and influence work, a historic story told by several writers, which brought up to date the mediaeval perspective on the story and the moral to be derived from it. Edmund Spenser was the best writer to synthesise the English Renaissance trends and notions. The Faerie Queen (1596), his incomplete EP is a treasury of romanticism, allegory, adventures, neoplatonic notions, nobility, patience and moral Protestantism, all presented in a wide range of literature genres.
Sir Philip Sidney - student, writer, reviewer, courtier, politician, man of diplomacy and military man - was the perfect man of the English Renaissance who passed away in combat at the tender age of 32. Its best poetry is included in the sonnets Astrophel and Stella (1591) and its defence of poetry is among the most important works of literature critique in the traditional series.
And many others in a historic period in which poetry was held in high esteem were gifted writers. Even more diverse than Sidney was Sir Walter Raleigh-poet, physicist, courtesan, explorer und serviceman, who composed powerful, concise poems. The Ralph Roister Doister (c. 1545) by Nicholas Udall and Gammer Gurton's Needle (c. 1552) are regarded as the first British entertainments to combine classic Latin drama with indigenous feel.
She grew up with the work of University White, whose refined pieces laid the groundwork for the Renaissance play and smoothed the way for Shakespeare. Among the hits were John Lyly, famous for Euphues' high artificiality and much imitation of fiction (1578); Robert Greene, the first romance comedian; the eclectic Thomas Lodge and Thomas Nashe; Thomas Kyd, who popularised the Neo-Secane tragedy; and Christopher Marlowe, the group's greatest playwright.
Its story sets a standards that was never reached again, and it is widely considered the greatest playwright and one of the greatest writers of all times. Jacobin era, Cromwell and RestorationElisabethan literary works in general reflect the overwhelming self-confidence of a country that expands its forces, increases its richness and thus keeps its serious societal and spiritual issues at bay. 1.
Jacobin fiction begins with play, among them some of Shakespeare's greatest and most dark work. Ben Jonson was the dominating character in James' rule. His diverse and dramatical works were based on classic examples and enhanced by his secular, peculiar British comedy. Equally distrustful were the terrible vengeance accidents of John Ford, Thomas Middleton, Cyril Tourneur and John Webster (the best writer of this fierce genre).
Nevertheless, many outstanding pieces were composed by men like George Chapman, the master comedians Thomas Dekker and Philip Massinger and the Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher group. The drama flourished further until the closure of the theatres at the beginning of the English Revolution in 1642. Ben Jonson and John Donne, the most important Jacobin period writers, are considered the founders of two different poetry styles - the gentleman and the methaphysical (see gentleman poet and methaphysical poet).
Not only did Jonson and Donne share a pool of literature but also a aridity of humour and accuracy of expressiveness. Donne's poetry is characterized by her impassioned intellect, Jonson by her classicalism and her urban leadership of passions. Though George Herbert and Donne were the most important methaphysical writers, Donne inspired the spiritual writers Henry Vaughan and Thomas Traherne as well as Abraham Cowley and Richard Crashaw.
Cavalier' s greatest poet was the sensually poetic Robert Herrick. Other cavaliers such as Thomas Carew, Sir John Suckling and Richard Lovelace were literary men in the graceful John Dory style, although their poetry became politics during the English Revolution. Though he is one of the world' s leading literary metaphysicians, the extremely personal Andrew Marvell participated in the Donne and Jonson legacy.
Some of the prominent authors of the Jacobin fiction were the interpreters who published the classical King James version of the Bible (1611) and the divine Lancelot Andrewes, Jeremy Taylor and John Donne. Hobbes Thomas composed the most authoritative policy paper of the time, Leviathan (1651). He was also one of the greatest British authors, John Milton, the most fervent and enthusiastic writer of Jacobin style treatises (many in defence of Cromwell's administration to which he belonged).
At Milton, the Renaissance legacy of literature and philosophy fused with Evangelical convictions of politics and morality. Literature was expanded with the re-establishment of the British Empire in the name of Charles II. It is a restorative cartoon that shows both the impact of France's charade (the British courts exiled in France) and Jacobinism.
The pieces by George Farquhar, Thomas Shadwell and Sir John Vanbrugh were glittering, but not quite as brilliantly. Dryden began as a dramatist, but became the most important writer and reviewer of his age. His most important work was John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1675), an Allegoric tale of fame that is regarded as the precursor of the novel.
Vivid and enlightening insights into the habits and customs of recovery can be found in the journals of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn. Those ideals reached their highest level of literature in the poetry of Alexander the Pope. Daniel Defoe's books, the first ever contemporary English books, owed much to the technique of the journal.
In fact, the novel was to become a literature that best responded to the needs and interests of the upper school. Among the most illustrious of these was the Scriblerus Club, whose members were Pope, Swift and John Gay (author of the beggar opera). Their aim was to maintain and protect high literature levels against the increasing flood of bourgeois norms and taste.
Correspondence was a beloved type of courteous writing. Pope, Swift, Horace Walpole and Thomas Gray were master masons of shape, and correspondence is the most important piece of writing by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Lord Chesterfield. Samuel Richardson's books, among them the powerful Clarissa (1747), were composed in epistolar style.
Richardson, Fanny Burney, Henry Fielding, Tobias Smollett and Laurence Sterne were the works of the British novel. The most famous literature cycle in our time was the one of Samuel Johnson. Among them were Joshua Reynolds, David Garrick, Edmund Burke, Oliver Goldsmith and James Boswell, whose Johnson bio is a classics of the genre. Johnson's life is a great example of this.
Dr. Johnson, who took the art of critique and conversations to new levels, shaped and assisted in developing perspectives on living, writing, and behavior in the mid-18th centuries. However, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan stood up above the widespread "weeping comedy" - whose sentimentality infect every contemporary literary style - to create a sophisticated drama in the restoration trad.
Some of the outstanding writers of the eighteenth century included James Thomson, who in The Seasons (1726) spoke of the natural world as reflecting the contemporary concepts of order and appearance, and Edward Young, whose Night Thoughts (1742) brought together melanchological and christian atrocities. William Blake's work, the first great romance writer, began at the end of the eighteenth century.
Romantic PeriodAt the turn of the 20th and 20th centuries, triggered by concepts of individual and collective freedom and the power and grandeur of the physical universe, painters and intelligentsia tried to overcome the ties of the eighteenth centuries conventions. First and foremost, the British's early backing of the revolution was idealistic and unrealistic, and when the French did not meet expectation, most British intelligentsia abandoned the revolution.
Yet the romance had taken different shapes from the politics, which evolved rapidly. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge presented and illuminated a freeing aesthetics in William Wordsworth's and Samuel Taylor Coleridge's 1798 and 1800 Ballads poetry, a turning point in literature history: poetry should convey in true speech the experiences filtering through one' own emotions and imaginations; the most true experiences were those of Mother Earth.
Searching for exalted moment, romantically poet writers talked about the wonderful and the miraculous, the esoteric and the Middle Ages. In the second wave of romance poetry were John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley and George Gordon, Lord Byron. In Shelley' s work, which linked aspiring poetry to an Apocalyptic policy visions, he looked for more radical repercussions and sometimes reached them, as in his great play Prometheus Unbound (1820).
The Lord Byron was the prototype romantically stronghold, the jealousy and gossip of the case. And Byron invests the romance text with a rationalistic sense of humour. Among the little romantically gifted writers are Robert Southey, who best remembers today for his Goldilocks and the Three Bears tale - Leigh Hunt, Thomas Moore and Walter Savage Landor. Romanticism was also a period full of literature critique and other non-functional fiction.
In his Biographia Literaria (1817), Coleridge suggested an authoritative hypothesis of bibliography. Wollstonecraft, William Godwin and his woman Mary Wollstonecraft have written groundbreaking books on people' and women's liberties. Hazlitt, who never renounced radical politics, composed brillant and perceptive critique of music. Edinburgh Review and Blackwood's magazines, in which prominent authors were featured throughout the twentieth-century, were important fora for controversies, both politically and literarily.
Even though the great writer Jane Austen writes in Romanticism, her work is unwise. She described people' s relations in the rural British environment with understanding, charm and humour. Walter Scott, Scots economist and romantics, made the historic novel extremely fashionable. In 1832, the AgeThe Reform Bill gave the centre classes the necessary strength to maintain and strengthen their already established economical positions.
Viktorian was the great epoch of the British novel - real, dense, full of character and long. A further writer of the latter part of the nineteenth century was productive Anthony Trollope, famed for a series of related novel scenes exploring England's societal, religious and politic lives. At the end of the epoch, the novel was not only regarded as the most important means of conversation, but also as a means of analysing and solving societal and policy issues.
Among the powerful philosophers were John Stuart Mill, the great libertarian academic and thinker; Thomas Henry Huxley, a researcher and populariser of Darwinist theories; and John Henry, Cardinal Newman, who seriously authored about religions, philosophies and educations. Charlemagne and Friedrich Engels, the founding fathers of communism, did research and written their books in the free surroundings of England.
John Ruskin, a great history of the arts and a great reviewer, also dealt with issues of society and the economy. Arnold's theory of fiction and civilization lay the foundation for contemporary fiction critique, and his poetry is also remarkable. The outstanding writer of the Victorian era was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. His poetry, although thematically romantically charged, was softened by individual sadness; in its blend of sociological certainty and religiosity, it mirrored the Ages.
Poetry by Robert Browning and his spouse Elizabeth Barrett Browning was extremely fashionable, although Elizabeth's poetry was more revered during her lifetime. Kipling Rudolf, the writer of the victory monarchy, took the lives of the British expansive warriors. Several beautiful poems have been written by Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti and Lionel Johnson.
One of the most diverse of the group, which includes Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore, was William Morris - creator, writer, printer, writer and socially oriented philosophy-maker. in their poems are sharing a gloomy point of views, but Housman's well construed verses are rather shallow. One of the great innovators among the Latevictorian writers was the Jesuit Priesthood Gerard Manley Hopkins.
He had a deep influence on the poetry of the twentieth centuries through the focus and authenticity of his pictures and his jarring beat ("jumping rhythm"). The most striking characters on the British literature stage in the eighteen-nineties were the decades. Oscar Wilde's glittering, funny Komödien and the funny Operetten by W. S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan were perhaps the best accomplishments of British playwriting in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
the Abbey Theatre in Dublin (see Ireland Literature Renaissance). ohn Millington Synge, William Butler Yeats and Sean O'Casey all written about Ireland - mythic in Yeats' poetry play, politically in O'Casey's realism games. George Bernard Shaw of Ireland also composed scathing dramatic works reflecting all facets of British life.
Indeed, many of the outstanding characters of 20 st Century British literary were not British; Shaw, Yeats, Joyce, O'Casey and Beckett were Irishmen, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, T. S. Eliot was an American, and Conrad was American. The poetry of the early twentieth centuries was shaped by the traditional romance of writers such as John Masefield, Alfred Noyes and Walter de la Mare, and by the experimentation of imaginaries, in particular Hilda Doolittle (H. D.), Richard Aldington, Herbert Read and D. H. Lawrence.
Yeats was the best writer of his time, whose poetry combined romance visions with modern politics and aesthetics. Although the 19 th centuries novel continued its traditions in the work of Arnold Bennett, William Henry Hudson, and John Galsworthy, new authors such as Henry James, H.G. Wells, and Joseph Conrad voiced the scepticism and estrangement that were to become characteristics of post-Victorian sensitivity.
Particularly powerful was the work of military writers such as Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen, who was murdered in the course of the Great War as were Rupert Brooke and Isaac Rosenberg. In the new epoch, new shapes were required, characterised by the work of Gerard Manley Hopkins, first released in 1918, and T. S. Eliot, whose long verse The Waste Land (1922) was a turning point in US and British literature as well.
It was his difficulties, his invention and his dark anti-romanticism that influenced the writers for years. Though his books were disputed for their linguistic and thematic freedoms, Joyce's revolution in storytelling, the way he dealt with the times, and almost all the other novel technologies made him a student who had to be imitated only sporadically.
Whereolf was the centre of the Bloomsbury group of authors, including writer E. M. Forster, philosopher Lytton Strachey and many important British intelligentsia of the early twentieth century. Inspired by the world economic crisis, the emergence of the fascist movement and the British policy of pacification, many authors and intelligentsia looked for answers in the policy of the right or right.
W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Stephen Spender and C. Day Lewis all announced their left-wing policy obligations, but the urgent requirements of the Second World War replaced these long-term ideal. However, after the Napoleonic Wars, most British authors decided to concentrate on esthetic or societal rather than moral issues; C. P. Snow was perhaps the remarkable one.
Writers Henry Green, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Joyce Cary and Lawrence Durrell as well as writers Robert Graves, Edwin Muir, Louis MacNeice and Edith Sitwell used to nurture their own striking voice. Others fiction writers and dramatists of the fifties, often referred to as the furious young men, voiced a profound discontent with British civilisation, coupled with the desperation that anything could be done.
The post-war years were not a great post-war English literary time, but they brought forth many distinguished reviewers, among them William Empson, Frank Kermode and F. R. Leavis. Several of the most thrilling works of this time were created in theatre, in particular the pieces of John Osborne, Harold Pinter, Tom Stoppard, David Storey and Arnold Wesker.
The best British post-war writers included Welsh writer Dylan Thomas and Ireland's foreign author and dramatist Samuel Beckett. Thomas' poetry and wealth of visual language confirmed the romance of his mind, and finally he was valued for his technological mastership. Beckett, who composed many of his works in French and interpreted them into English, is regarded as the greatest representative of the theatre of the preposterous.
Further prominent contemporaries are Hugh MacDiarmid, the protagonist of the Scots literature revival; Ted Hughes, whose hard, post-apocalyptic poetry celebrated easy surviving; and Seamus Heaney, an exquisitely celebrated Irishman. Authors of novels have usually found little inspiration in the Thatcher and Maior periods, as in the preceding one, but the work of Margaret Drabble, John Fowles, David Lodge stand out, and the Scots author James Kelman stand out.
Cf. Siehe A. Chowler, A history of English Literature (1987) ; The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, Hrsg. von G. Watson (4 Bände, 1969-72) ; The Penguin Companion to English Literature, Hrsg von D. Daiches (1972) ; The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Hrsg von M. Drabble (1985) ; The Oxford Anthology of English Literature, Hrsg von Oxford.
edited by M. Alexander et al. (5 vol., 1991); The Oxford English Literary Historiques, vol. 2 by J. Simpson, 1350-1547, Reform und Kulturrevolution (2002), vol. 8 by P. Davis, 1830-1880, the Victorians (2002).