Ancient WritingAntique Writing
The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Greece - Writing
Composition is the bodily expression of a verbal speech. Estimates suggest that man evolved speech around 35,000 BC, as shown by cavern painting from the time of the Cro-Magnon man (ca. 50,000-30,000 BC), which seems to articulate the notions of everyday living. They suggest a speech, because in some cases they seem to tell a tale (e.g. of a hunt where certain incidents took place) rather than just a picture of the animal and the other.
However, writing was only invented in Sumer, South Mesopotamia, around 3500-3000 BC. The early writing was known as wedge writing and was to make special markings in moist earth using a device with reeds. Egyptian writing was already in use before the ascent of the early dynasty (around 3150 BC) and is said to have evolved from the Mesopotamic wedge writing (although this is a controversial theory) and to have become known as heiroglyphs.
Phoenic writing system of the Greeks and later of the Romans originate from Phoenicia (hence the name). Although different from Mesopotamia, the Penenician writing system still owe its evolution to the Sumerians and their progress in the script. Irrespective of the Middle East or Europe, script was invented in Mesoamerica by the Mayans around 250 AD (although some indications point to a date as early as 500 BC).
The writing in China evolved from fortune telling rituals with origional bone around 1200 B.C. and also seems to have originated independent, since at this point in the history there is no indication of a multicultural transmission between China and Mesopotamia. In ancient China, prophecy included engraving markings on bone or shellfish, which were then warmed until they broke.
The story is not possible without the spelled words, as there would be no contexts in which to interprete material proofs from the ancient past. The writing is the first necessary stage in the writing of the story of a civilisation or civilisation. Early discoverers of the Maya places, such as Stephens and Catherwood, thought they had found proof of an ancient Egypt civilisation in Central America.
The same issue can be seen in the comprehension of the ancient kingdom of Meroe (in present-day Sudan), whose Meroitic writing has not yet been decoded, and the so-called linear A-writing of the ancient Minoan civilization of Crete, which has also not yet been comprehended. Sumerians developed writing as a means of remote communications, which became necessary through commerce.
Sumerians created writing as a means of remote communications, which became necessary through commerce. As Mesopotamian towns rose and the need for natural ressources in the area grew, so did long-distance trading and the need to be able to talk across the vast area.
Pictograms - icons representing items - were the oldest type of writing and were used to remember which packets of cereals had gone to which target or how many ovine were needed for incidents such as burial. In ancient Mesopotamia it was a very favourite drink, so many of the early notes have to do with the sales of beers.
Kriwaczek points out that until then only one technology had been invented for writing things, articles and things, not a writing system. To be able to articulate more complicated conceptions than finance deals or bills of material, a more complicated writing system was necessary, which was designed in the town of Uruk in Sumeria around 3200 BC.
Pictogrammes, although still in use, gave way to phonogrammes - icons representing sound - and these tones were the lingua franca of the Sumerians. In the past, there were only pictures in icons showing things like ovine and temple. Whereas in previous writings (known as proto-cuneiform) they limited themselves to list of things, one author could now state what the meaning of these things could be.
The consequent use of this kind of pronunciation only became clear after 2600 B.C. It represents the beginning of a real writing system, which is characterised by a complicated mixture of words and soundsigns for vocals and symbols, which enabled the writer to articulate notions.
In the mid-third millennium BC, wedge writing was used mainly on clays for a variety of economical, religio, political, scientific and scientific document. The new means of communicating enabled the teachers of the law to capture the happenings of their own day and their own religion and, over the years, to produce an artistic genre that was not possible before the words were written: writing.
Matter of Aratta, four verses about King Enmerkar of Uruk and his king Lugalbanda, were probably made between 2112-2004 B.C. (but only between 2017-1763 B.C.). The first of them, Enmerkar and The Lord of Aratta, explains that the Scripture was created because the King Enmerkar's ambassador, who went back and forth between him and the King of Aratta, finally had too much to recall and so Enmerkar had the thought of writing down his teachings; and so the Scripture was thus arose.
Gilgamesh-Epos, which is regarded as the first epical story of the earth and one of the oldest preserved books, was published sometime before 2150 BC, when it was recorded and dealt with the great Kings of Uruk (and descendants of Enmerkar and Lugalbanda) Gilgamesh and his search for the purpose of it.
Mesopotamian myth, the tales of their deities and hero, their story, their construction, their burials, their feasts, could now all be captured for the afterlife. It was so important to write to the Mesopotamians that under the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (685-627 BC) over 30,000 tablets of earth were gathered in the archive of his capitol Nineveh.
It hoped to protect the legacy, cultural and historical background of the area, and understands the importance of the literal term in its attainment. Of the many auctions in his collection, Ashurbanipal contained works of literary, such as the Gilgamesh or Etana stories, because he recognized that literary articulated not only the stories of a particular nation, but of all man.
The rhythm and meters, perhaps proposed by the rhythm of the natural and physical worlds, seem to have been created by wizards or the shaman to conserve, transfer and amplify the magical evocations of their verses. Poetry's part in the preservation of epic legend would play an important part in ancient civilizations.
Mahabharata (written around 400 BC), the ancient Mahabharata, the ancient legend of India, retains the spoken legend of the area in the same way as the Scottish and Irish history and myth. These works and those that came after them only became possible with the coming of the Scriptures. Writing has now made it possible to preserve people's past and histories.
Phoenicians' contributions to the literary world made writing simpler and more available to other civilizations, but the fundamental system of writing icons to depict words and conceptions began much sooner. The early writing system, which was introduced into other civilizations, developed into the writing languages of these civilizations, so that Greek and Latin served as the foundation for writing in Europe, just as the Semitic Aramaic writing would form the foundation for Hebrew, Arabian and possibly Sanskrit.
Whatever the ages, from the beginning, writing has helped to convey the thoughts and emotions of the individuals and their cultures, their shared histories and their experience of the state of mankind and to conserve these experience for coming generation.